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BRIDGE CONVENTIONS

A Convention, as defined by The Random House College Dictionary, is an agreement, a compact, or a contract; an international agreement, especially one dealing with a specific matter; a general agreement or consent; accepted usage.

A Convention, as defined by The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge, is a call or play with a defined meaning.

There were many pioneers in establishing these conventions, and they are used by bridge players in America and around the world. They were invented, implemented, revised, and became useful tools in the management of 26 cards. They serve as instruments of communication between two people playing the same game. Some have practically remained the same from the day of their conception, and some have experienced several variations.

If all bridge hands were balanced, the game would be boring. There are many combinations resulting from the deal of 52 cards. Many have weird shapes. In order to master these multitude of card combinations, conventions have been devised, created, invented, and then varied and modified by the average and expert bridge player. Our intention is to simplify their definitions and applications in order to make the conventions understandable and helpful. One disadvantage to conventions are their interpretations. Even bridge players with thirty years experience disagree on the defined meaning of some bids because of the numerous amount of card combinations. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to reach a Partnership Agreement, and if your partner makes an inaccurate bid, then he has made a mistake, which you must accept. Shouting at him will do no one any good. Bridge is supposed to bring joy, fun and entertainment to the players. If a bidding mistake happens, please return to your written Partnership Agreement, review it, and, if necessary, make the required amendments. In this manner, you and your partner will avoid the same mistake again.

It is important to have a Partnership Agreement concerning the definition of a convention. Otherwise the Line of Communication becomes disturbed and distorted. Therefore, in addition to the Basic Guidelines, the agreed usage of the definitions of the conventions must be clear to both partners.

A History of Bridge

 
The attempt has been made to list the conventions alphabetically.

The attempt has been made to group the conventions under a General Category.

Our fellow bridge players can do a Search and Find
and/or just scroll down the web page.

We hope that this method meets with your cyberspace satisfaction.

Following are several conventions and summaries of ethics and conduct at the Bridge Table. The list is incomplete, of course, but we shall be adding new conventions as time passes. The attempt has been made to simplify the definitions, in order that the reader does not become overwhelmed and overpowered by examples and explanations. Simply click on the convention you would like to review, deal yourselves a few hands as practice, and if you like the convention, please include it in your partnership agreement. Keep in mind that almost every convention has been altered, changed, improved over time and variations have also become popular. We have tried to include these variations under the main heading of the convention.

We have decided to make a special page for the Acol System and all of its features, modifications, conventions and treatments. A quick or intensive study of this main Bidding System of England might assist the individual bridge player deciding to visit England.

By clicking on the icon below, you will be taken to this section we have devoted to the Acol Bidding System.

Artificial Two Clubs - Two Clubs - 2 Clubs Opening - A tool for opening a very strong hand. In modern practice, there are two conditions under which a holding should be opened with a strong forcing bid.

Following are several tools, conventions and treatments, used in partnership agreements for responding to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening.

Albarran - De Nexon Responses - This concept was introduced and devised by Mr. Pierre Albarran and Mr. Baron Robert de Nexon of France and authors of the bridge book: Notre Methode de Bridge, published 1935. This treatment and/or convention is used only after a 2 Clubs opening by the responder. Fundamentally, the Albarran - De Nexon convention is Ace Showing, providing information to the 2 Club bidder before he/she has a chance to define and describe his/her holding.

Ace Showing Responses - These are responses to forcing strong artificial Two Clubs opening bids that are based on the theory that the opener with a powerful unbalanced or semi-balanced hand is more interested in the first-round controls of his partner than in his long suit or general strength.

Automatic Two Diamonds Response - A treatment devised by several partnerships, whereby the only response permitted to a strong artificial Two Clubs opening must be 2 Diamonds.

CAB Responses - The C.A.B. responses to a strong, articial 2 Clubs opening is a feature of the C.A.B. Bidding System devised by Mr. Leslie William Dodds of London, England. These responses are also part of the Acol Bidding System generally employed in England and Australia with minor differentiations.

Eric Kokish's Responses to a Strong, Artificial 2 Clubs Opening - Mr. Eric Kokish believes that most experts are correct in the opinion, that two-suited hands should not be opened with the artificial, strong 2 Clubs bid. Therefore, when the 2 Clubs opener shows a second suit, it is expected to be a 4-card suit. This stipulation affects some of the recommended sequences. In the discussion below, an Ace is two controls, and a King is 1 control.

Gamma Responses - These responses to a Strong, Artificial 2 Clubs opening were developed by Dr. E. Lachand of France. He also devised the Gamma System, which features a 2 Clubs opening bid being employed with two different holdings.

Two Diamonds Negative Response - A response showing minimum values to an opening forcing 2 Clubs bid.

Two Diamonds Positive Response - A partnership agreement, whereby the only possible positive response is 2 Diamonds after an opening of a strong artificial 2 Clubs bid.

2 Diamonds As Negative And 2 Hearts as Neutral Response - Two different responses to a strong artificial Two Clubs opening.

Two Hearts Negative Response - Among the many and various responses to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening are the following first responses to let the opener know a possible distribution and a possible number of values held by the responder.

Cheaper Minor as a Second Negative - A treatment allowing the responder to show with his rebid the lower range of his values.

Herbert Second Negative Response - A convention to show the lower range of a weak response used by the responder on the second rebid.

Step Responses - This convention was devised by bridge players in the past decades to allow the responder, whose partner has opened the auction with an strong artificial Two Clubs bid, to inform his partner Step by Step the possession of Aces and Kings.

Super Sudhaker - This conventional method has been developed by Mr. Sudhakar Bhatt. It is a conventional method of responding to a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening whereby the responder may or may not be a passed hand. The concept has borrowed elements of other conventional methods, with which it has several similarities, but contains certain requirements for the responder which differ and excludes the first response of a 2 No Trump bid. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser.

Warren Convention - This is a 4 No Trump convention, which is sometimes referred to as the San Francisco Convention. It was used by many bridge players when the game of bridge was evolving and it is, to some degree, very similar to the concept of the Culbertson Four-Five No Trump convention. The origin of the designation of the convention is unknown.

The amBIGuous Diamond System - The origin of this system is unknown. We are very thankful to Mr. Marvin Fench of San Diego, California, for contributing this information. The amBIGuous Diamond system is designed for matchpoint bidding. It combines the advantages of real-suit bidding with the bidding of notrump with all notrump-type hands (and only notrump-type hands). The bidding system permits and features four-card major opening bids. This is a .pdf file and will be automatically opened by your browser.

Aspro Convention - With the Aspro convention the opponents can defend against a 1 No Trump opening. Mr. Terence Reese devised this method and based it on the Astro Convention.

Asptro Variation - This method is also a defense mechanism to a 1 No Trump opening and is a variation of the Aspro convention and the Astro convention.

Astro Convention - This convention uses the bid of a Minor suit overcall after a strong 1 No Trump opening of 15-18 high card points to show a particular distributional holding. The terminology comes from the names of the bridge players, who devised the convention: Mr. Paul Allinger - Mr. Roger STern - Mr. Larry ROssler.

Astro Cuebid - The Astro Cuebid is also an invention of Mr. Paul Allinger - Mr. Roger STern - Mr. Larry ROssler to indicate a two-suited holding after an opponent opens the auction on the one level with a suit bid.

Baby Blackwood - Sometimes, there are some bridge hands which are slam-suspicious. Employing the normal Blackwood convention would present a problem, because the bidding might exceed a safe contract. Baby Blackwood was devised as a convention to prevent this.

Bailey Weak Two Bids - This treatment was originated by Mr. Evan Bailey of San Diego, California, and Mr. Edward Barlow of Sacramento, California. The link is to the web pages of Mr. Evan Bailey. The concept is that one partner opens a Weak Two bid in any suit except Clubs, and this opening shows specific distributional attributes. Following are the requirements for a Bailey Weak Two Bid. These requirements allow only five distributions: 5-3-3-2, 6-3-2-2, 6-3-3-1, 5-4-2-2, and 5-4-3-1. This concept is also preserved and archived on this site in a .pdf file format.

1. Five or six cards (as weak as Q-x-x-x-x) in the bid suit.
2. Two or three cards in each unbid Major.
3. One to four cards in each unbid Minor.
4. No more than nine cards in the two longest suits.
5. 8-10 high card points if nine cards are held in the two longest suits, and 9-11 high card points if eight cards are held in the two longest suits.

Balancing - Some views on the Art of Balancing, which is not a science under any standard. However, one should familiarize oneself with the basic requirements of Balancing before reaching a partnership agreement.

Bangkok Club System - When one of the bridge players at the bridge table opens 1 Club, then that bridge player could be using the Bangkok Club System devised by Mr. Somboon Nandhabiwat.

Basic Guidelines
For Beginners

Basic Guidelines - These are only recommended guidelines, which have proven effective over past years. The best instructions come from a certified bridge teacher and/or instructor, who can guide the learning bridge player.

Opening The Auction - Under which circumstances and with how many high card points should a player open the auction.

Responding - Once the auction has been opened by your partner, what are the Basic Guidelines you should follow to accurately and quickly describe your hand. This is important for the communication between partners and should form the foundation upon which you build trust and confidence.

Rebid By The Opener - This rebid is one of the most important bid in the auction, because it informs partner as to the length and strength. This bid is the most descriptive.

Golden Rule - A little but important guideline which will assist, as a part of the partnership agreement, the communication of held distribution.

Rebid by the Responder - It is important to learn the Guidelines used by many bridge players to communicate not only strength and length. The Rebid by the Responder is an excellent tool.

Following are several additional tools for the responder and for his/her second bid to describe the values and distribution.

Bart

Delayed Game Raise

Fourth Suit Forcing

New Minor Forcing

Behavior
At the Bridge Table

Behavior - and you thought we forgot.

Etiquette - An essential element at the Bridge table. It does not matter whether you are playing social bridge, rubber bridge or Duplicate Contract Bridge.

Concentration - If you lose your concentration, you may lose the necessary trick needed to make the contract. Always stay alert.

Conduct - It is always nice to make a good impression on your fellow bridge players. We should always try to be friendly and courteous.

Propriety - A strict code of ethics and courtesy is part of the game. The purpose of the Proprieties contained in Chapter VII, Laws 72 to 76 is to make the game of bridge more enjoyable for everyone, no matter what the situation.

Zero Tolerance - The ACBL has printed Guidelines on all of the above. It would be nice if everyone would read this article. This policy has now been established and is enforced at all sanctioned events.

Library
Main Section

Becker Convention - Becker is a conventional method employed after one opponent opens 1 No Trump. It shows a certain two-suited hand with varying strength which is generally in the two suits indicated.

Benjamin Convention - A scheme for opening Two-Bids or bids on the two level: Majors: weak; Diamonds: artificial (near) game-force; Clubs: artificial, an Acol two-bid with long suit(s) as yet unspecified.

Benjamin Two Bids or Benjamin 2 Bids - The origin is unknown. This is a designation for a strong, sometimes artificial Minor suit opening on the Two Level, which promises either a game holding or a near-game holding. It is part of the Acol bidding system or a variation of an Acol bidding system feature. Also known as: French Two Bids or Unnamed Strong Two Bid Openings.

Mr. Marty Bergen has developed several bidding conventions and bidding methods which are applied in modern bidding auctions. We have listed them separately to make the search easier for the visitor.

Bergen Over No Trump

Bergen Drury

Bergen Over Doubles of 1 No Trump

Impossible 3 No Trump

Jump Cuebids As Transfers

Bergen Major Suit Raises

Bidding Systems - A list of Bridge Systems employed around the world. This list contains the most widely-used Bidding Systems which have caught the attention of the bridge player. These Bidding Systems have also withstood the challenge of time, and have survived through popularity in the bridge community.

Blackwood - Mr. Easley Blackwood came up with an idea on how to bid and also how to avoid slams. His convention has caught the attention of every bridge player around the world.

Variations on this concept of Mr. Easley Blackwood are presented below and have enhanced this concept greatly to benefit many bridge partnerships, and are worthy of the serious bridge player.

Baby Blackwood - Sometimes, there are some bridge hands which are slam-suspicious. Employing the normal Blackwood convention would present a problem, because the bidding might exceed a safe contract. Baby Blackwood was devised as a convention to prevent this.

Blackwood After Interference - If the opponents dare to interfere with the bidding after you initiate the Blackwood convention, you have several choices to show your number of Aces. There are several devised conventions to show your strength, such as: DEPO, ROPI, PODI, DOPI, DOPE, RIPO.

Blue Team Responses - A variation on the Blackwood convention devised by the Blue Team of Italy and also the variation on the Blackwood convention called the English Roman Blackwood.

Byzantine Blackwood - A complex variation of the Blackwood convention using Side Suits and Half-Side Suits as features.

Cheap Blackwood - A variation of the Blackwood convention to allow more bidding space for the exchange of descriptive information.

Exclusion Keycard Blackwood - A form of Roman Key Card Blackwood in which partner is asked to show Aces and/or Key Cards except in a particular suit, which has been determined to be a void. This convention is also known as Voidwood.

Key Card Blackwood - A variation of the Blackwood convention, which shows the four Aces and the King of trump. Also known as Five-Ace Convention.

Kickback - A method of asking for Keycards when seeking slam. The origin of this concept is by Mr. Jeff Rubens of Scarsdale, New York. The concept is also a result of an application called U.S.P., or Useful Space Principle, also conceived by Mr. Jeff Rubens, which is defined as when allocating bidding space under partnership agreements and understandings, then assign the bidding space where most useful without reference to natural or traditional bridge meanings of calls.

Redwood - A version of the Kickback conventional method employed only when the agreed trump suit is a Minor suit. This concept is also based on the application called U.S.P., or Useful Space Principle conceived by Mr. Jeff Rubens.

Minorwood Convention
The origin of this variation of the Blackwood conventional method is unknown. As the designation signifies, this variation is only employed when the established or inferred trump suit is a Minor suit.

Rolling or Sliding Blackwood - Rolling Blackwood, or Sliding Blackwood, is a variation of the Blackwood convention. It takes into account that two partners could reach an unsafe contract in the Minors using the normal Blackwood convention.

Roman Blackwood - This convention is a variation on the concept of Mr. Easley Blackwood and shows matching Aces and Aces of the same color and/or rank.

Roman Key Card Blackwood - This variation of the Blackwood convention includes the King of Trump as a fifth Ace, and the responder shows Key Cards.

6-Ace Roman Key Card Blackwood - This conventional method, otherwise known by its abbreviated designation 6A-RKCB, is considered to be a natural extension of the concept known as Roman Key Card Blackwood, whereby the Key Card Bidder asks for five known Key Cards. However, the 6A-RKCB conventional method asks for eight known Key Cards, the four Aces, the two Kings, and the two Queens. The one difference is that the Roman Key Card Blackwood conventional method applies to only one known suit fit, whereas the 6A-RKCB conventional method applies to two known suit fits.

RKCB Void Showing Variation - This variation of the original conventional method was developed by Mr. Chip Martel and Mr. Lew Stansby to show a void in addition to the number of held Keycards. This variation employs different responses if the void has been established in advance during the auction.

Roman Key Card Blackwood 1430 Convention - A variation of Roman Key Card Blackwood which reverses the meaning of two responses.

Voidwood Blackwood - A form of Roman Key Card Blackwood in which partner is asked to show Aces and/or Key Cards except in a particular suit, which has been determined to be a void. This convention is also known as Exclusion Keycard Blackwood.

Blue Club System - The book Blue Club was written by Mr. Benito Garozzo in 1969, and the co-author was Mr. Leon Yallouze. Its contents explained the system used by the Blue Team of Italy, which had many successes. This book was adapted from the French by Mr. Terence Reese and the Introduction was written by Mr. Omar Sharif. The book was published in 1969. A simplified version is presented.

Blue Team Club Openings - There are certain guidelines basic to the Blue Team Club, and it must be realized that the foundation, and thus the additional responses, have been altered over the course of many years. Several partnerships continue to play the Blue Team Club, although with certain modifications.

Blue Team Club Responses - The responses to a 1 Club opening show controls by Steps, counting an Ace as 2 controls and a King as 1 control.

Blue Team Club System - The Blue Team Club System is based on the principle that a 1 Club opening is forcing. The style of this System is called Canape, and this means that the opener can/should bid the short suits before he bids the long suits. Canape is a bidding method in which the opener bids his long suit on his rebid and was developed by Mr. Pierre Albarran from France.

Bridge Bidding Systems - Here you will find a list of the different Bidding Systems available to the bridge player. Many great men and women from around the world have worked diligently to devise these Bidding Systems. We do not plan to explain each and every Bidding System, but the good bridge player should be aware that there other Bidding Systems used. If possible, the bridge player should become acquainted with several, because very many conventions and treatments have been incorporated into the 5-Card American Standard Bidding System.

Bridge Sites - If you click on the Links Button below, you will also find out where other interesting Bridge Sites are on the Internet and around the world, where the Districts and Units are located and many personal Bridge Webpages. It is fascinating to discover that interest in the Game of Bridge is so high and alive.

Brozel Convention - The Brozel convention was developed by Mr. Bernard Zeller, and can be applied either in the direct or balancing position. The Brozel convention is a system of bids to describe a two-suited hand. Distribution of the hand bidding Brozel is the key to a successful contract. Similar to the Pinpoint Astro, it however places emphasis on Hearts.

Brozel Rescue Bids - Many partnership agreements include the understanding that the No Trump range is 11 to 14 high card points. The frequency of being doubled when using this No Trump range is higher than when the No Trump range requires more high card points.

Byzantine Blackwood - A complex variation of the Blackwood convention using Side Suits and Half-Side Suits as features.

Cansino Convention - The origin of this defense convention is attributed to Mr. Jonathan Cansino and Mr. Jeremy Flint, both of England, during the 1960s, and who were also instrumental in devising the Multi 2 used in the Blue Club System. This is a defense tactic used after the opponents have opened a 1 No Trump, especially against a weak No Trump opening with 12 to 14 high card points or even a No Trump range of 10-12 high card points. This idea is to discover, as soon as possible, a 7-card fit at least in one of the four suits, and preferably an 8-card fit.

Cappelletti Convention - This convention was invented by Mr. Michael Cappelletti as a defense generally against a 1 No Trump opening. This method is also called Hamilton and/or Pottage. Mr. Michael Cappelletti created this method to be used either in the direct seat or in the balancing seat.

Modified Cappelletti - This concept is variation to the Cappelletti Convention, which is a defense mechanism to an opening by an opponent of No Trump. The origin is unknown.

Revised Cappelletti - This concept is variation of the Cappelletti Convention, which is a defense mechanism to an opening by an opponent of No Trump. The origin is unknown.

Carding - Defined as: The set of agreements between partners relating to the meanings of cards played on defense. There are several methods of signaling your partner when defending. We have decided to list several carding or signaling defense mechanisms and/or methods, which communicate information to the partner.

Journalist Leads - Journalist Lead - The term Journalist seems to stem from a series of articles in the respected Bridge Journal in the United States. While these leads were popularized by the Bridge Journal in the 1960s, they were described earlier by Mr. Helge Vinje of the Oslo Academic Bridge Club.

Obvious Shift Principle - A carding method from A Switch in Time by Pamela and Matthew Granovetter. At Trick 1, partner of opening leader compares the led suit and obvious shift suit. Encouragement, upside-down or standard, denies tolerance for the obvious shift suit. Discouragement actively confirms tolerance for the obvious shift suit. This applies whether opening leader will maintain the lead or not.

Rusinov Leads - Rusinov Lead - The principle behind Rusinow Leads is simply the leading of the second-ranking of touching honors. Rusinow Leads are used only on the first trick against a suit contract in a suit, which the partner has not bid during the auction, if at all. It is uncommon to employ the Rusinow Leads also against a No Trump contract since the purpose of the lead against a No Trump contract is entirely different in nature, but it is not illegal.

Checkback Stayman by the Responder - This .pdf file has been written and contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego. It represents a thorough explanation of this conventional method and employs illustrative examples demonstrating auctions and situations, in which the conventional method is used. We are very grateful to Mr. Marvin French for his contribution. The .pdf file will be automatically opened by your browser and not automatically downloaded to your computer.

Library
One Club
Bidding Systems

Club Systems List - This is the begin of a list of Club Bidding Systems, which open with 1 Club and attempting to define the meaning of what that exactly is. In some instances, only the opening bidding sequence is given since there are no resources to draw from because some bidding systems have been lost to history, have been modified and varied, have not been published, are in books presently out of print, or are simply the result of a particular, individual partnership agreement, or the origins were developed in other countries and these publications have not been translated.

Bangkok Club - As the name indicates, this Club System was devised in Thailand. Yes, there are bridge players in Thailand. Devised by Mr. Somboon Nandhabiwat this Club System was used with some success in several world championship tournaments.

Blue Club - The Blue Team developed a bidding system using a combination of the Neapolitan and Roman bidding systems. Combining the most favorable features of both bidding systems resulted in the formation of the Blue Club bidding system. The main proponents of this bidding system were Mr. Walter Avarelli, Mr. Benito Garozzo,Mr. Pietro Forquet, Mr. Massimo D'Alelio, and Mr. Giorgio Belladonna. They had great success at the bridge tournaments using the Blue Club System.

Blue Team Club Openings - Blue Team became the popular name for the Italian International Bridge Team, which had many international successes from 1956 to 1975. The captain and the members of the Blue Team devised a bidding system, which is still played today. The Blue Team Club was the result of the efforts of the Italian Bridge Federation, Mr. Carl Alberto Perroux, the team captain, and the team members, who dedicated themselves to the study of the game of bridge.

Blue Team Club System - The Blue Team Club System was mainly devised by Mr. Benito Garozzo. The Blue Team Club System is based on the principle that a 1 Club opening is forcing. The style of this system is called Canapé, and this means that the opener can/should bid the short suits before he bids the long suits. Canapé is a bidding method in which the opener bids his long suit on his rebid and was developed by Mr. Pierre Albarran from France.

Blue Team Club Responses - As the name implies, the opening will be 1 Club. The significance of this 1 Club opening is that it is defined as 1. forcing, and 2. shows 17 or more points using a 4-3-2-1 count. Sometimes it is also a distributional factor which may define a 1 Club opening with slightly less than 17 points, or a weaker 1 Club opening with exactly 17 points.

Blue Team Roman Responses to Blackwood
Even the Roman Blackwood convention, a variation of the original Blackwood Convention, has a variation. This variation was devised by the Blue Team Club and was applied with some success. The Blue Team was the popular name given to the Italian International Bridge Team which had a series of huge successes starting in 1956 and ending in 1969.

Carrot Club Bidding System - The Carrot Club, originally "Morotsklovern", (Swedish for Carrot Club), was invented by Mr. Sven-Olof Flodqvist and Mr. Anders Morath in 1972 for use in the European Championships in Athens, Greece. It was the system that won the European Championships in 1977, with two pairs playing Carrot. In the European Championships the Carrot team placed 1st in 1987, 3rd in 1989, 2nd in 1991, and 5th in 1993. In the World Championship they placed 3rd in 1987 and 1991, and in the Olympics 3rd in 1988 and 4th in 1992.

Kentucky Club Bidding System - The origin of this bidding system is unknown but the name can hold a clue.

Lea System - The Lea System is based on the 1965 privately published book, authored by Mr. Robert H. Lea of St. Paul, Minnesota, entitled Bridge is Easy With The Lea System. The system is based on a strong, forcing 1 Club opening, which promises 12 plus high card points.

Monaco Bidding System - The Monaco system was the original Relay System. It was devised by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France around 1954, and used with Mr. Rene Bacherich in several World Championship tournaments. The main concept of the Relays some transfers is to bid in such a manner as to make the stronger hand become the declarer in the final contract.

New South Wales System - A variation of the Vienna System formerly used by Mr. Richard Cummings and Mr. Tim Seres and other Australians.

Tangerine Club Bidding System - The Tangerine Club is a Bridge bidding system based on a weak/strong 1 Club opening, followed by simple but efficient asking bids, light opening bids of one of a suit showing 10-14 points and at least 4 cards in the suit, a 1 No Trump opening of 12-14 high card points and a balanced hand without five card Majors, a natural 2 Clubs opening showing 10-14 points and at least 5 clubs, and Weak Two openings of 5-9 points and at least 5 cards in the suit.

Universal Club Opening Bids - The origin of these opening bids is unknown but is based on a system developed in the United States. The 1 Club opening bid has a definite limited range and shows a minimum of length in the Club suit. However, the 1 Club opening may show a stronger holding, which then has to be determined. These opening bids also employ the use of a 5-card suit whenever a Major suit is opened and the No Trump range has been extended. Generally any opening on the two level promises distinct distributional holdings. The opening bids are shown in the schematic below.

Universal Club Two Clubs Opening - In the Universal Club bidding system, origin unknown, the opening bid of 2 Clubs has been assigned a specific meaning, which is that it shows a three-suited holding, generally a distribution of 4-4-1-4, with values between 12 and 17 high card points. A minimum and a maximum point count is known and also the short suit, which is Diamonds.

Universal Club Two Diamonds Opening - In the Universal Club bidding system, origin unknown, the opening of 2 Diamonds has been assigned a specific meaning. This opening bid promises a three-suited holding. The required point count is between 16 and 21 high card points. This opening demands that the Diamond suit be one of the three suits as opposed to the 2 Clubs opening bid, which shows Diamond shortage.

Universal Club 2 Hearts and 2 Spades Opening - The Universal Club bidding system has relegated special, if not specific, information in the opening bid of either 2 Hearts or 2 Spades. Either of these two openings promise at least a 5-card card, or longer, and a second, unspecified second suit, also a 5-card suit, or longer. The point range is a minimum of 14 high card points and the upper range is unlimited. Therefore, these two opening bids are forcing for one round. They are not considered to be absolutely game-forcing in nature.

Whirlwind Convention - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. This conventional method is employed by the defense as a defense mechanism after one opponent has opened the auction with an opening of a strong 1 Club.

Library
Main Section

Cole Convention - The origin of this conventional method is attributed to the suggestion of Mr. William (Bill) Cole to the the Woolsey-Manfield partnership, which consisted of Mr. Christopher R. (Kit) Woolsey and Mr. Edward (Ed) A. Mansfield. Mr. Kit Woolsey published a two-part series on the Cole convention in The Bridge World magazine March 1991, pages 16-18 and April 1991, pages16-20. It is basically a rebidding system permitting the partnership to accurately describe certain distributional holdings plus showing the range of values.

Convention Chart - Everything you wanted to know about the new Convention Chart and more.

See also: Convention Card Instructions - Links to a printable text file explaining how to fill out a Convention Card. Also a link to ACBL.com which presents the 24 .pdf files published in the Bridge Bulletin beginning August 2004, explaining and illustrating how a Convention Card may be filled out.

Crash Convention - The conventional method was devised by Mr. Kit Woolsey and Mr. Steve Robinson, and is devised as a means to enter the auction with weak two-suited holdings after a strong, artificial 1 Club opening by the opponents.

Crash Convention - Altered Version - This altered version of the original version allows the partnership to vary the concept after overcalling a strong, artificial 1 Club opening.

Crash Convention - Three Suited Version - The idea behind the Three-Suited Version of the Crash conventional method adds the possibility that the overcaller, or intervenor, to show a three-suited hand for competing against a strong, artificial 1 Club opening.

Crash Convention - Transfer Version - The idea behind the Transfer Version of the Crash conventional method is to make certain that the overcaller, or intervenor, with the stronger holding become the declarer as opposed to the advancer.

Crash Over One No Trump - Crash over 1 NT - This is an extension of the Crash convention, which was devised by Mr. Kit Woolsey and Mr. Steve Robinson, which was originally devised for preemptive interference after an artificial 1 Club opening by the opponents. This extension was created for constructive bidding after the opponents open with 1 No Trump.

Modified Crash Convention - This version of the Crash conventional method was employed and popular in England. The version is employed in combination with the TWERB convention method, which is an acronym for Two-Way Exclusion Relay Bidding.

Super Crash Convention
The origin of the Super Crash conventional method is unknown. This variation of the original Crash conventional method is devised to show either a one-suited holding, a two-suited holding, or a three-suited holding after the opponents begin the auction with a strong, artificial 1 Club opening.

Crawling Stayman - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The designation is sometimes also referred to as Creeping Stayman. The concept behind this conventional method of the employment of two other conventional methods in the partnership agreement of Non-Forcing Stayman and the Jacoby Transfer method. It is mainly employed when the responder has a weak holding and decides that the partnership has a better chance in a suit contract rather than in a No Trump contract.

Crowhurst
In the Acol Biddding System an opening of 1 No Trump indicates a weaker range, generally 12 to 14 points, than generally played in Standard American. This concept is designed to assist those bridge players to show this different range agreed upon by partnership agreement.. This method was devised by Mr. Eric Crowhurst and is widely used by British tournament players.

Declarative-Interrogative 4 No Trump - D.I. Four No Trump - This is the official designation used for Declarative-Interrogative, otherwise known as simply D.I. It refers to a 4 No Trump bid employed as a general slam attempt. This method was originally established as part of the Neapolitan system. The Blue Team Club was based upon a bidding system called Neapolitan, the origin of which remains unknown, but which was played successfully by many bridge players in Italy. However, since 1965, Mr. Benito Garozzo has gradually revised the Neapolitan and renamed it the Blue Team Club system.

Defense to
1 NT Openings

Defense to 1 No Trump - Defense to One No Trump - Defense to 1 NT - This link leads you to Defense conventions against 1 No Trump openings. This connection will take you on a Tour For Defense Conventions. Clicking on the individual links below will take you specifically to the convention you may choose.

D.O.N.T. or DONT Bergen Over No Trump Hamilton Convention
Astro Convention Cansino Convention Landy Convention
Modified Astro Cappelletti Convention Ripstra Convention
Pinpoint Astro Crash Over One No Trump Suction Convention
Aspro Convention Brozel Convention Becker Convention
Multi Landy Brozel Rescue Bids ANTI Against No Trump
Lionel Convention Asptro Convention Featherston Convention
Modified Cappelletti Crowhurst Against No Trump Revised Pottage
Twerb Suction CDH Buchanan Suction Redwood
Revised Cappelletti Hello Convention Modified Wallis
Mohan Defense Sharples Modified Sharples
Nilslandske slinkningar Nilsland Defense Revised DONT Variation
Roche Defense Modified Cansino Maestro Double
Meyerson Conventional Method

Note: Many concepts have been pioneered as defense mechanisms against an opening No Trump bid. This has increased the level of competition in many auctions and has enhanced the game of bridge. As with all defense mechanisms against an opening by an opponent there have been variations of the original concept developed based sometimes on the strength of the No Trump range, based on the individual partnership agreement, based on the vulnerability, based on the number of Losing Tricks, and other factors and therefore become modifications, variations, revisions. Some of these variations carry a distinct designation and other variations are generally not known by a definite or definitive term. Even the variations have variations and modifications. The attempt has been made to include these variations as they become known or are contributed by our visitors.

Touching Escape Bids - This convention method provides a so-called escape system in particular auctions whereby one player has opened the bidding with a suit and there has been an overcall of a natural 1 No Trump, which is then doubled for penalty by the next player in rotation. This conventional method is also employed when the opening bid of 1 No Trump has been doubled for penalty.

Library
Main Section

Defense Mechanism to Opponent's Overcalls of 1 No Trump - This defense mechanism was written by Marinesa Letizia and published in the Bridge Bulletin November 1997 and presents an alternative method of dealing with overcalls of 1 No Trump. The logical approach outlined assists the bridge player to deal with most of the conventions devised to disturb the communication of two players.

Defense Signal Summary - A short summary of defensive signals, carding and discarding methods, which have perhaps the higher frequency of application. The individual defense signals have been posted elsewhere, but this short summary may be useful.

Defense to a Preempt on the Three Level - There are several methods of defending against opponents, who decide to open the auction on the Three Level. Many bridge players have given much thought to this form of attack.

Cheaper or Lower Minor - This is a method, sometimes referred to as a convention, which uses the Cheaper or Lower, still available Minor suit, if the preempt on the Three Level is in the Club suit, as a takeout double.

Cheaper Minor Over The Blacks - This method uses an overcall of 3 Diamonds after a preempt on the Three Level of 3 Clubs, and a 4 Clubs bid over a preempt on the Three Level of 3 Clubs, for takeout. Any double over a preempt on the Three Level of 3 Clubs is for penalty. Any double over 3 Diamonds or 3 Hearts is considered a cooperative double.

FILO - A defense method after an opponent opens the auction with a preempt on the Three Level. This method is used mainly in England and is called FILO for FIshbein over Red suits and LOwer Minor, or Cheaper Minor, over Black suits is for takeout. Any double is considered to be for penalty.

Reese Method - A method, which uses the bid of 3 No Trump as a takeout after a preempt on the Three Level in a Major suit only. The call of a double is for penalty. If the preempt is in a Minor suit, then a double is takeout, even in the pass-out seat.

Smith Convention - A variation of the Cheaper or Lower Minor suit, devised by Mr. Curtis Smith, whereby a bid of 4 Clubs is the only bid over any preempt on the Three Level for takeout. Used mainly in England.

Tonto Convention - This conventional method was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Stone. The designation is an acronym for Transfers Over 3 No Trump Overcalls. It is a basically a means employed by the partnership to continue to explore for additional information after one partner has overcalled an opening preempt bid on the three level by the opponents with 3 No Trump.

Weiss Method - This is a method of defense, which is a partnership understanding, generally against a Preempt on the Three Level, and which combines the application of the Cheaper Minor Suit for takeout, and the double is applied as an Optional Double.

Defense to Strong Artificial Opening Bids - Mr. Alan Fraser Truscott has devised a method of defending against a Strong, Artificial Opening bid, generally an opening of 1 Club, to show a one-suited or two-suited holding.

D.O.N.T. or DONT - This is a convention used in bridge bidding and which was devised by Mr. Marty Bergen and published by Mr. Larry Cohen. This convention is sometimes referred to as Bergen Over No Trump, but has been accepted into the language of bridge as simply D.O.N.T.

Doubles
Doubles

Doubles - Everyone uses them, but the meaning can be different in many cases, and can actually change during the auction. Please take a look, and brush up on your doubles. By clicking here, you can take a Tour Of Doubles. Clicking on the individual Doubles below will take you directly to the particular Double.

Competitive Double

Cooperative Double or Optional Double

Fisher Double

Lead Directing Double

Lightner Double

Maestro Double
Maximal Double

Maximum Double Overcall

Mini Lightner Double
Minimum Off Shape Take Out Double

Negative Double

Optional Double

Penalty Double

Respond To Take Out Double

Responsive Double

Sohl Double
Thrump Double

Snap Dragon

Stripe Tail Ape Double
Support Double
Support Redouble

Takeout Double

Dragon 2 No Trump - Dragon 2 NT - Contributed by Mr. Robert Hanly of Canada. This conventional method is employed when the partnership employs Weak No Trump openings and an opening of 1 Club or 1 Diamond promises multiple values and shape. Included in this .pdf file are also Dragon 3 Clubs, which is an Asking Bid when playing 1M-2NT as natural and forcing to game; Canadian 2 Diamonds, which is a variation of the Mexican 2 Diamonds conventional method; Dragon Defense to Polish Club, which is a constructive defence mechanism to the Polish Club System; and GForce, which is a conventional method for responses to a Forcing Raise in a Major suit, compiled by Mr. Fred Gitelman, with a few variations. Clicking on the link will open the .pdf file.

Drury Convention - A convention devised by Mr. Douglas Drury to allow partner to show a certain point range with distributional support after passing.

Bergen Drury - A method devised by Mr. Mary Bergen to differentiate between a 3-card and a 4-card support for the original Major suit opening in third or fourth seat of partner.

Drury Convention Variation - Norway Drury - The following variation, origin and developer unknown, played generally in Norway defines the rebids of the opener in a more detailed fashion and allows for a more informative description of the holding of the opener. The auction proceeds normally, but it is important to remember that a distinction is made between the opening of 1 Heart and 1 Spade as well as the continuances.

Reverse Drury
After a third or fourth seat opening of 1 Spade or 1 Heart, a 2 Clubs response shows a strong raise of opener’s suit, about 9 to 11 points. The opener then rebids his suit on the Two Level to show a minimum hand. Other rebids by the opener are natural and considered forcing.

Two Way Drury
This variation employs two bids to discover whether or not the holding of the opener is weak, sub-minimal, or a full opening.

Two Way Reverse Drury
This variation employs two bids to discover whether or not the holding of the opener is weak, sub-minimal, or a full opening.

The Dutch Two Bids - Muiderberg - Muiderbergh - Lucas Two Bids - The origin of the Dutch Two Bids, Lucas Two Bids, Muiderberg or Muiderbergh Two Bids, which is sometimes spelled differently, is the village of Muiderbergh, The Netherlands, which lies near Amsterdam. The concept was devised by Mr. Onno Janssens and Mr. Willem Beogem, who both lived in this village, and was based on Weak Two openings. The origin of the Lucas Two Bids is unknown and the original definition was that it represented a 5-card suit either in Diamonds, Hearts, or Spades with a second 4-card side suit in the other Major if the opening Two Bid was in either of the Major suits. The high card point range was between 6 and 10 high card points. In general, the responses follow the same pattern as the Muiderbergh Two Bids.

Dynamic 1 No Trump - Dynamic One No Trump - Dynamic 1 NT - This method of opening No Trump is an integral feature of the Romex Bidding System, devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico and Mr. Phillip Alder. The concept is that the opener may show a relatively strong holding, which is unbalanced, and which can be made on any distribution except 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, or 5-3-3-2 holdings. The strength is restricted to exactly 18 to 21 points and must have at least five controls and which has only four to five losers.

Ekrens Bidding System - This bidding system was devised and developed by Mr. Bård Olav Ekren, who is from Norway. The original version has been altered to reflect the evolving stages and has been complemented with several Concepts and Principles. The bidding system has been catagorized independently. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Ekrens 2 Opening - Ekrens 2 Hearts Opening - The 2 Hearts opening shows at least 4-4 in the Majors and 5/6-10 high card points. In Norway this conventional method is called Ekrens, named after Mr. Bård Olav Ekren, who originated the convention (although he used the 2 Spades opening to show this distribution). This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

The supplemental features are not linked in the .pdf file formats. The student should first exit, return to this web page, and click on the link provided below, which is also a .pdf file format.

Ekrens 2103 Principle - The 2103 Principle is employed to indicate the scale used when replying to a relay that asks for length in one specific suit. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Ekrens Ceiling Concept - The Ceiling Concept is defined as the contract, which would be preferred not to pass unless an attempt is initiated for a slam. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Ekrens LoHi / LoHiNo (LoHiBoth) Principle - LoHi and LoHiNo are acronyms for Lowest/Highest and ../None. It is used when the captain asks for a feature. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Ekrens MaxFirst Principle - Starting a relay against a hand that is very variable in strength (at least 3 high card points difference from minimum to maximum), the first answer to the relay is often according to the MaxFirst principle. This means that the 1st step in the answer is reserved for all the hands with extra values, whereas all the remaining steps shows minimum values and some particular distribution. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Ekrens RKCB or Ekrens Roman Key Card Blackwood - The Ekrens bidding system uses Roman Key Card Blackwood, RKCB, as its first and main tool for slam-going purposes. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Ekrens VoSS'N Principle - This principle called VoSS’N is an acronym for Void / Single / Single / None. It is mainly used when the responder has shown at least 8 cards in two specific suits and we have a known fit (one of the two suits is partner’s suit). It is also used when we open a Minor on the 1-level and partner preempts. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Exclusion Keycard Blackwood - A form of Roman Key Card Blackwood in which partner is asked to show Aces and/or Key Cards except in a particular suit, which has been determined to be a void. This convention is also known as Voidwood.

Fishbein Convention - Defense convention against a Preemptive Opening or a Weak Two Opening.

Balancing Fishbein Convention - This convention allows the player in the Pass-Out Seat ways of describing his hand accurately. Please review the Fishbein Convention first.

Five No Trump Opening - 5 NT Opening - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. It is, however, a feature of the Acol bidding system generally used in the United Kingdom as an opening bid to describe a certain holding containing one Losing Trick in both Minor suits.

Flannery Two Diamonds - Flannery 2 Diamonds - This convention allows the opener to describe a certain distribution and point count range in both Major suits with one descriptive bid.

Fourth Suit Forcing - A convention, whereby the rebid of the unbid fourth suit, generally by the responder, is forcing for at least one round.

Gambling Three No Trump - Gambling 3 No Trump - Gambling 3 NT - An opening bid based on a long solid Minor suit.

Gambling Two No Trump - Gambling 2 No Trump - Gambling 2 NT
A 2 No Trump opening based on a long, solid Minor suit. A modified version of the Gambling 3 No Trump conventional method. The difference being that this method requires only one stopper in a side suit.

Good Bad 2 NT or Good Bad Two No Trump - A highly useful concept which handles frequent bidding situations in competition. Author and Contributor is: Mr. Larry Cohen.

Ghestem - A system of strong two-suited overcalls developed by Mr. Pierre Ghestem.

Golden Rule - A principle in bridge which every player should adhere to. Short and sweet.

Gerber Convention - A convention devised by Mr. John Gerber to ask for Aces and Kings one level lower than the Blackwood convention. Mr. Gerber also included suit contracts in his convention, and the application thereof can be quite effective. Beware, however, that certain ambiguities can arise by using this convention. Included are also explanations for Rolling Gerber or Sliding Gerber, as it is sometimes known.

Following are several variations and modifications on the concept of the Gerber convention, which many partnerships have included in their partnership agreements.

Ace Identification Convention - A variation of the Gerber convention to locate the position of the Ace or Aces held by the responder.

Black and Red Gerber - A convention to assist the partnership when the trump suit is Clubs.

Extended Gerber - A method of pinpointing certain Key Cards in slam attempts.

Fane Four Club Convention - Fane 4 Club Convention - A modification of the Gerber convention to show Aces, Kings, and a void.

Key Card Gerber - A variation of the Gerber convention to show Key Cards.

Lillois Gerber / Lillois Blackwood / Lillois Ace-Asking Convention
This variation was devised by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France, a bridge expert and published author. This particular designation is possibly a French derivation of the town in France called Lille, where Mr. Pierre Ghestem was born. Although the Ask-Asking bid is the same as the Ask-Asking bid in the Gerber convention, the conventional method is also referred to sometimes as Blackwood and/or Ace-Asking. This variation of the original concept of the Gerber convention provides the partner with the information about the rank and the color of the Aces.

Roman Gerber Convention - Since 1938, bridge players around the world have altered, modified, and expanded the concept of Mr. John Gerber. This is a modification of the Gerber convention, which uses Roman style responses.

Romex Gerber - The Romex system has created a modification of the Gerber convention, which allows the partnership to identify the location of certain Aces.

Super Gerber - A modification of the Gerber convention which allows any bid between 4 Clubs and 5 Clubs to ask for the number of Aces.

Goldilocks Two Bid - Goldilocks 2 Bids - This concept was devised by Mr. Glen Ashton. The link is to his website on the Internet. The foundation of this conventional method is that all bidding auctions begin on the two level. This conventional method has also been archived and preserved only on this site in a .pdf file format which will be automatically opened by your browser.

Hamilton Convention - After the opponents open 1 No Trump, the Hamilton convention is a defensive bid either in the direct seat or in the balancing seat. It resembles Cappelletti and Bergen in some ways, but has different meanings to the individual bids.

Hello Convention
This conventional method was devised and developed by Mr. Jerry Helms of North Carolina. The concept can be employed in many different situations and auctions such as:

Exclusion Bids: in the case that the responder of the No Trump bidder makes a call or bid, then this conventional method can enable the partner of the overcaller to take some action.
Balancing: this concept is also available to the player in the Fourth Seat to either balance or respond to the action taken by partner after the opponents open the auction with No Trump.
After Strong 1 Club and 2 Clubs Openings: this concept can also be applied in these situations when the opponents are employing a Strong 1 Club system or after a strong, artificial 2 Clubs opening.
After No Trump rebids by the Opponents: this concept may also be employed after an opponent has rebid No Trump.
After No Trump Overcalls by an Opponent: when the partner opens the bidding and an opponent overcalls with No Trump, then the concept may also be employed.

Variations and Modifications provided by and credited to OneDown.

Ingberman Convention - This is not a variation of the Reverse bid, but rather a concept devised by Mr. Monroe Ingberman to be used by the responder of a Reverse bidder to show minimum values through a Relay bid of 2 No Trump.

Inverted Majors - A conventional method, devised by Mr. Alan P. Wollman, which is a variation / modification of the concept used for the conventional method called Inverted Minors and otherwise known as Major Suit Responses: An Ultra-Scientific Approach.

Inverted Minors - A treatment in the Kaplan-Scheinwold System showing weakness or strength after a Minor suit opening.

Jacoby Two No Trump - Jacoby 2 No Trump - Jacoby 2 NT - This treatment is an integral part of Limit Raises.

Jacoby Plus 2 No Trump Response to a Major Suit Opening - The origin is unknown. This is a method used by several partnerships and which is designed to employ the first response of 2 No Trump after a Major suit opening by the partner. It is based on the Limit Raises convention, but with slight differences and interpretations.

Jacoby Transfer with Stayman Combined - This is a partnership agreement, whereby the responder can show a 5-4 distribution after the partner has opened or even overcalled with 1 No Trump.

Jacoby Transfer - Jacoby Transfers - This convention, devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, is used by the responder whose partner has opened the bidding with 1 No Trump, 2 No Trump or 3 No Trump. As the name of the convention indicates, the responder will transfer the No Trump bidder to a more favorable suit.

Jacoby Transfers For The Minor Suits - This convention, originally devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, is used by the responder whose partner has opened the bidding with 1 No Trump, and is an extension of the Jacoby Transfer convention. The bridge community liked the original concept of Mr. Oswald Jacoby and created new variations. The concept of this convention was created for the responder, whose holding includes a long Minor suit and, generally, very little values.

Jacoby Transfers with Stayman Combined - This convention or treatment is employed by many partnerships and has become part of the partnership agreement. The concept began when it was realized that one convention would not suffice when holding a specific distribution of 5-4 in both Major suits. The treatment also is employed by partnership agreements if the responder holds both 5-card Major suits.

Minor Suit Stayman - This convention, a variation of the Jacoby Transfer originally devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, is used by the responder whose partner has opened the bidding with 1 No Trump. The Minor Suit Stayman convention was devised for specifically three types of holdings held by the responder, and which will be determined during the ensuing auction:

1. a holding with a 6-card plus Diamond suit and weak values.

2. a 5-5 distribution in both Minor suits and weak values.

3. a 5-4 distribution in both Minor suits and possible slam values.

Four Suit Transfer Bids - 4 Suit Transfer Bids - This is the extended version of the Jacoby Transfer originally devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby after an opening of 1 No Trump by the responder to transfer to all four suits.

Two No Trump Response as a Relay to Three Clubs - This treatment is used by many partnerships, which utilize the response of 2 Spades as a slam try in a Minor suit. The concept is easy since, after a 1 No Trump opening by the partner, a 2 No Trump first response is a Relay to Clubs.

Jordan Two No Trump - Jordan 2 No Trump - Jordan 2 NT - Also known as the Truscott Two No Trump and the Dormer Two No Trump. A treatment to show support for partner's suit after an intervening overcall. It is especially used when playing Limit Raises.

Extended Truscott - Mr. David Morgan discovered that the Truscott Two No Trump conventional method was somewhat flawed when attempting to describe certain holdings, especially when the opponent doubling was in third seat. This is a variation of the Truscott / Jordan / Dormer Two No Trump conventional method to overcome this particular flaw.

Splimit - This is a variation of the Truscott Two No Trump conventional method to show, after a double by the opponent, shortage in a side suit and at the same time a Limit Raise of the suit of the partner. The designation is a combination of Splinter and Limit Raise.

Kabel Three No Trump - Kabel 3 No Trump - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The concept is to determine the location of specific Aces and Kings with an opening of 3 No Trump. The opening bid is forcing and implies a very strong holding with fewer than three Losing Tricks. After determing whether partner holds any specific values and the location thereof, the opener is then able to set the correct contract at the correct level.

Karosel 2 Diamonds - Karosel Two Diamonds - This conventional method, published by Mr. Charles L.L. Dalmas, specifically addresses the holding of a semi-balanced holding with 18-19 high card points.

Key Card Blackwood - A variation of the Blackwood convention, which shows the four Aces and the King of trump. Also known as Five-Ace Convention.

Kokish Rebids - In order to resolve several bidding problems after a 1 Diamond opening and a 2 Clubs response, Mr. Eric Kokish has formulated a series of responses to communicate better information regarding the holding of the partner.

Kokish Relay Bids - Mr. Eric Kokish devised this mechanism to illustrate how it is possible to show a holding of 25 to 27 high card points and a balanced hand without having to consume bidding spade on the Three Level.

Landy Convention - The Landy treatment starts with a bid of 2 Clubs. This overcall shows good distribution in the two Major suits, and the length should be at least 4-card support in each suit. The vulnerability has a definite influence on deciding whether to overcall or not.

Lionel Convention - In May 1993 Mr. Lionel Wright wrote "Lionel In Action" in the International Popular Bridge Monthly magazine. Mr. Lionel Wright explained why the traditional Penalty Double of 1 No Trump is overrated and suggested a method of entering a competitive auction.

The L-System - The L-System was devised by Mr. Hong Liu for light to very light openings. The foundation of the L-System is to open a Major suit with as few as 8 to 12 high card points, and to open a Minor suit with as few as 10 to 12 high card points on the one level. Any opening bids on the two level are considered preemptive in nature.

Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge 1997 - Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. The American Edition as promulgated in the Western Hemisphere by the American Contract Bridge League. Effective May 27, 1997 and published and distributed by the American Contract Bridge League. All copyright laws are in effect. Also see:

Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge 1997

Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge 1997

Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge 1997 - .pdf file format

Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge 1997 - In Polish language.

Lebensohl or lebensohl - A convention to assist the partnership in clarifying the responses to a 1 No Trump opening and after an immediate overcall. The Lebensohl convention has also other applications.

Lebensohl Over Reverse Bids - The origin of this method and partnership agreement is unknown, but it addresses a problem situation whenever the opener employs the Reverse bid.

Leghorn Diamond System - This bidding system was developed by Mr. Benito Bianchi and Mr. Giuseppe Messina. It is quite similar to the Roman System and also carries the designation of the Livorno System.

Lightner Double - The Lightner Double is a lead-directing double bid by the defenders of a voluntarily bid slam contract, developed by the bridge pioneer Mr. Theodore A. Lightner. His premise is that a double by the hand not on lead is conventional.

Library
Archive Room

Little Known Conventions - We take you on a Guided Tour of conventions and conventional methods, which did not make the Top Ten List.

Albarran - This treatment and/or convention is used only after a 2 Clubs opening by the responder. The origin is unknown. Fundamentally, the Albarran convention is Ace Showing, providing information to the 2 Club bidder before he/she has a chance to define and describe his/her holder.

Albert Two Clubs - Albert 2 Clubs - The Albert Two Clubs bid is an artificial and Forcing Opening in First, Second, Third or Fourth Seat, and is forcing to game.

Ambra - The origin of this designation is unknown. This file is in Italian. This is a compilation, with added variations, of the methods based on the Two Over One bidding system devised by Mr. Benito Garozzo for the Italian 2000 World Junior Championships. If the reader would prefer the system in .pdf file form in Italian, then, depending on the browser, the file will be either automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader or opened automatically by the browser.

The second choice is Ambra in English, which is also a .pdf file format in English, and again, depending on the browser, the file will be either automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader or opened automatically by the browser. The author, who is unknown, has included several smilies into his compilation, and the reader should not be surprised.

August Two Diamonds - August 2 Diamonds - The August 2 Diamonds conventional treatment is a variation of the Two-Way Stayman bid after an opening or overcall of 1 No Trump by partner.

Bernier System - Bernier Big Club - This bidding system was devised by Mr. Jerry Bernier and Mr. Mike Schmenk in the 1960s, and is also known as the Bernier Big Club.

Beta Convention - In the early stages of developing the game of bridge, a need arose for opening a weak Club, mainly to obstruct the bidding of the opponents. However, the concept grew and evolved to employ other opening bids to reflect a certain distribution of the holding and the strength of the holding. Thus was Beta born, devised by Mr. Pierre Collet of France around 1969. The concept is to inform the partner as quickly as possible the structure of the opening hand.

Biedermeijer - In English. This web page has been translated by Mr. Anton van Uitert and we owe him a debt of gratitude for taking the time and effort to supply us with the translation and thank him for his contribution.

Biedemeijer Blue - In Dutch.

Biedermeijer Blue - In English. This web page has been translated by Mr. Gerben Dirksen and we owe him a debt of gratitude for taking the time and effort to supply us with the translation and thank him for his contribution.

Biedermeijer Green - In Dutch.

Biedermeijer Green - In English. This web page has been translated by Mr. Mike Deloof, who lives in Belgium. We owe him a debt of gratitude for taking the time and effort to supply us with the translation and thank him for his contribution.

Biedermeijer Red - In Dutch.

Biedermeijer, Dutch Acol and Dutch Doubleton compared to SAYC - Author is: Helene Thygesen, to whom we owe a debt of gratitude for this major contribution. This is a study of the different Dutch Bidding Systems and how they compare to the SAYC conventional methods and a description of the more popular bidding systems as they are played in The Netherlands, such as the Niemeijer, Oranje Klaver, Saaie Klaver, and Lorenzo conventions.

Power Dutch Doubleton - The author is unknown. In Dutch. Any assistance in a translation would be appreciated. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Power Dutch Doubleton - Mr. Roy Reshef has been so kind as to contribute the translation of the web pages for this conventional method from the original Dutch into the English language. He has also included footnotes, which are essential in understanding this conventional method better. We thank him for his contribution. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Boland Convention - Boland Slam Try - The origin of this bidding method is unknown, but is most likely the conclusions of Mr. V.F. Boland and Mr. John H. Law, two bridge experts and authors, who published their studies 1931 in the book: Accurate Contract Bridge. This is a method of slam exploration after one partner opens especially with a 1 No Trump, but which can also be applied with a 2 No Trump opening, and the responder jump raises to 4 No Trump.

Bromad Convention - The initials stand for Bergen Raise Of Major After Double, and as the name indicates this conventional treatment uses a 2 Club bid to show a certain support length and support count as opposed to a Direct Raise.

Byzantine Blackwood - Ever since Mr. Easley Blackwood created his concept of Ace-Asking for slam attempts, several variations on this theme have popped up. One of those variations is a complex variation devised by Mr. J.C.H. Marx of Great Britain. The responder responds to 4 No Trump in a similar style to Roman Blackwood, in that a Key Suit King is shown instead of one of the Aces.

CAB - A bidding system used in England during the Fifties which enjoyed some popularity.

Cambridge Standard Opening Bids
A chart showing the significance of opening bids used by several bridge partnerships, especially in England.

Carrot Club Bidding System
This is the English version of the Carrotski Club. Included is Interference After a Two-Way Club Opening and responses after a 1 No Trump opening. A forcing club system devised 1988 by Mr. Hans Göthe, Mr. Sven-Olov Flodqvist, Mr. Per Olof Sundelin, Mr. Tommy Gullberg, Mr. Anders Morath and Mr. Sven-Åke Bjerregård of Sweden.

Clement Oliver Opening Bids - A partnership understanding for opening bids as devised by Mr. Bruce Clement and Mrs. Pam Oliver of Wellington, New Zealand.

Cobra - Computer Oriented Bridge Analysis is the result of feeding a computer certain elements of the evaluation and distributional factors of card combinations by Mr. E.T. Lindelof.

Dutch Acol Openings - A variation of the ACOL bidding system used by bridge partnerships in The Netherlands.

Flint Three Clubs - Flint 3 Clubs - The Flint Three Club convention allows the partnership to stop in a 3 Diamonds contract, or three of a Major suit after a 2 No Trump opening. A 3 Club response forces the opener to bid 3 Diamonds, after which the responder then passes or signs off in a Major suit.

Flint Two Diamonds - Flint 2 Diamonds - A second modification of the Flint convention is the Flint Two Diamond Convention, and is used to investigate game in a No Trump contract or a Minor suit after a Weak No Trump Opening. A 2 Diamonds response shows either a hand with a solid Minor suit or an unbalanced hand with at least four cards in each Minor suit.

Gardener No Trump Overcall - Devised by Mr. Nico Gardener, London. As a defense mechanism, a 1 No Trump overcall can be very effective. It is definitely obstructive. However, the Gardener No Trump overcall has two interpretations.

Granville Convention - Although the origin is unknown, the general consensus is that this conventional method was developed in England. It is sometimes referred to as the Kaplan Interchange, although it has little to do with the Kaplan-Sheinwold Bidding System. The problem arose owing to a particular problem presented mostly in the Two Over One bidding system.

Halsall Convention - A bidding treatment to show a two-suited hand over a preempt, generally on the Three Level.

Hardy Adjunct to New Minor Forcing
The origin of this concept is unknown. When the partnership has agreed to employ the Hardy Adjunct after a New Minor Forcing bid by the responder, then the opener can further clarify his holding and shape or pattern.

Inverted Psycho Suction - A defense mechanism after a No Trump opening, devised by Mr. Thomas Andrews.

Kamikaze No Trump - The Kamikaze No Trump is a bidding system devised by Mr. John Kierein. The concept was to open a holding in First or Second Seat with a total of 9 to 12 high card points. After the ACBL regulated that any No Trump opening with less than 10 high card points could not apply the usual conventions such as Stayman, Mr. John Kierein altered his Kamikaze No Trump opening to show values between 10 and 13 high card points.

Kantar Kleinman Slam Force - Mr. Eddie Kantar and Mr. Danny Kleinman, during their play as bridge champions, devised separately a method of reaching slam. Since their method reached the bridge community about the same time, this method became known as the Kantar-Kleinman Slam Force.

Kaplan Interchange - Although the origin is unknown, the general consensus is that this conventional method was developed in England. It is mainly referred to as Granville, although it has little to do with the Kaplan-Sheinwold Bidding System. The problem arose owing to a particular problem presented mostly in the Two Over One bidding system.

Kiri Asking Bid - The origin of this designation is unknown. The concept serves only one purpose and is employed only after one partner, whose partner has not previously passed, opens the auction with 1 No Trump. The responder, with game forcing values and the correct distribution, first responds with 4 . The opener, with this Kiri Asking Bid, is required to describe the strength of the No Trump opening.

Liberty Double - The Liberty defense mechanism versus the Multi offensive mechanism is used when the opponents opening bid has multiple weak possibilities with no known suit. This defense mechanism is designed to increase the possibility of penalties while also providing, at the same time, some blocking bids. The main feature is the Liberty Double made directly over the Multi bid.

Major Minor Canape - MamiC
The concept of the MamiC Opening Bid system was devised by Mr. Richard Lighton of New Jersey around 1990. The concept is based on the Major-Minor-Canape opening bidding system.

Matthew Two Spades - Matthew 2 Spades - The origin of this conventional opening is unknown. The concept is a Weak Two bid opening with multiple meanings and clarified by the opener with the second bid. The high card point values are less than an opening count and the Weak Two bid is dependent on distribution.

Mock Swedish - This is a opening bidding system devised in 1993 by Mr. Richard Lighton of New Jersey, who was fascinated by the Muppet Show created by Mr. Jim Henson.

Monaco Bidding System - The Monaco system was the original Relay System. It was devised by Mr. Pierre Ghestem of France, and used with Mr. Rene Bacherich in several World Championship tournaments. The main concept of the Relays some transfers is to bid in such a manner as to make the stronger hand become the declarer in the final contract.

Parkes Two Spades - Parkes 2 Spades
The origin of this conventional opening is unknown. The concept is frequently a Weak Two bid opening with multiple meanings and clarified by the opener with the second bid. The high card point values may be less than an opening count or exceedingly strong and the Weak Two bid is dependent on distribution.

Psycho Suction - A defense mechanism after a No Trump opening, devised by Mr. Thomas Andrews.

Reverse Flint Convention

Roudy Convention - Roudi Convention
The origin of this conventional method is unknown. This conventional method is considered popular in the country of France and is applied after the responder has bid 1 Spade, which has a definite significance.

Stenberg - The origin of Stenberg is not known, but it is a variation on the Limit Major Raises. Included are the rebids by the opener and several by the responder with the corresponding meanings.

Swedish Jacoby 2 No Trump - This is a variation of the Jacoby 2 No Trump used in Limit Raises. This variation is played in Sweden and has gained some popularity.

Tape Relay System - The Tape Relay bidding system was devised by Mr. Donald Evans, and uses a Forcing Pass as an opening bid in any seat, after prior players, opponents or partner, have passed.

Tiroler Berg Weak Two Bids - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The basis of the concept is the Weak Two bid in either Major suit with the original opening showing a specified suit. The opening can have several meanings, which are then clarified by the rebids.

VROOM Defense to 1 No Trump Openings - Mr. Mohamed Abdel Bari summarized and Mr. Scott Bennett Graham contributed this defense to 1 No Trump openings by the opponents.

The Weak 6-4 Method - This concept was devised as an augmentation to the convention New Minor Forcing. The foundation of the concept is, as a responder, the ability to show a particularly distributional holding of 6-4 and generally weak values.

Woodgroves Multi - The Woodgroves Multi convention begins with the opener bidding 2 Diamonds. The holding of the opener can vary according to the partnership understanding and will be clarified during the ensuing auction. The employment of the Woodgroves Multi is to some degree questionable and should be cleared with the governing bridge organization.

Wittes Adjunct to New Minor Forcing - The origin of this treatment is unknown. When employing New Minor Forcing as the partnership agreement, the partnership may wish to show the quality of the opener's holding in the responder's Major suit.

Woolsey Defense To 1 No Trump - Mr. Christopher R. Woolsey, also known as Kit, devised a method for the defenders to enter the auction after the bidding has begun with an opening 1 No Trump.

Yellow Rose of Texas Convention - This conventional method is one of many invented by Mr. Danny Kleinman and this presentation is a contribution of Mr. Danny Kleinman, and which are published in his book called A Cornucopia of Conventions. This particular conventional method is employed after the partner has opened the auction with 1 No Trump or 2 No Trump, and the partnership agreement is to use also Texas Transfers.

Library
Main Section

Limit Raise - Limit Raises - A different approach to supporting partner's bid suit. Below are several conventions, treatments and methods of responding to an opening.

Jacoby Two No Trump - Jacoby 2 No Trump - Jacoby 2 NT - This treatment is an integral part of Limit Raises.

Mini-Splinter

Swiss Convention

Singleton Swiss

Super Swiss

Omnibus Two No Trump Response To A Major Opening

Long Suit Trial Bid - This bidding method, used after a Major suit opening, is very useful if the responder shows immediate support to determine whether the partnership should be in partscore or in game. This web page also includes Short Suit Trial Bids and Long Suit and Short Suit Trial Bids combined. This concept has similar features as in the method known as Help Suit Game Try or Short Suit Game Try.

Lucas Two Bids - Muiderberg - Muiderbergh - The Dutch Two Bids - The origin of the Lucas Two Bids, Dutch Two Bids, Muiderberg or Muiderbergh Two Bids, which is sometimes spelled differently, is the village of Muiderbergh, The Netherlands, which lies near Amsterdam. The concept was devised by Mr. Onno Janssens and Mr. Willem Beogem, who both lived in this village, and was based on Weak Two openings. The origin of the Lucas Two Bids is unknown and the original definition was that it represented a 5-card suit either in Diamonds, Hearts, or Spades with a second 4-card side suit in the other Major if the opening Two Bid was in either of the Major suits. The high card point range was between 6 and 10 high card points. In general, the responses follow the same pattern as the Muiderbergh Two Bids.

Meckwell Escape Bids - Mr. Eric Rodwell and Mr. Jeff Meckstroth have formed a successful bridge partnership, which has created many new concepts in and for the bridge community and especially in a partnership agreement. The designation of Meckwell Escape Bids is the name of one such partnership agreement employed by this particular partnership.The concept behind this partnership agreement comprises a so-called Escape System, which is employed after North-South have opened the auction with a bid of 1 No Trump or North-South have overcalled a suit opening by the opponents with 1 No Trump and the opponents have used the call of double for penalty. The employment of the Penalty Double is one of the requirements necessary to employ the following method. The bridge player should remember that this method is the result of a partnership agreement and is not a conventional method in the general sense.

Mexican Two Diamonds - Mexican 2 Diamonds - Developed by Mr. George Rosenkrantz as a feature of the Romex System, and an opening which has become fundamental in the Romex System. The problem was that a hand containing 18/19-20/21 high card points could be opened with a Dynamic 1 No Trump, showing a balanced holding with six controls or a holding just short of the requirements for a 2 Clubs opening.

Michaels Cuebid - This convention allows one partner to inform his partner about a 2-suited hand. Distributional hands are very powerful, and this convention instructs the user how to use this tool.

Modified Michaels Cuebid - A variation of the Michaels Cuebid played in Canada. An effective and efficient variant which uses Jump Cuebids.

There have been modifications to the Michaels Cuebid convention, of which many have been suggested, and three versions are presented below, which are in included in our Glossary:

Leaping Michaels

Super Michaels

Top and Another Cuebids - T and A Cuebids - This method of the standard but combined Michaels Cuebid and Unusual No Trump as overcalls was developed by Mr. Gene Hendricks.

Mini Roman Two Diamonds or Mini Roman 2 Diamonds - The origin of the Mini-Roman Two Diamonds is unknown. The concept is closely related to the concept of the Roman Two Diamonds conventional method and should be studied together with this concept. The Roman Two Diamonds conventional method promises a three suited holding with a distribution of 4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0.

Modified Astro - This variation, or modification, of the Astro convention is used to expedite the description of a Major Suit two-suiter after a strong 1 No Trump opening, or 15-18 high card points, to show a two-suited hand.

Mohan Defense Against Weak No Trump Opening - Devised by and named after Mr. John Mohan, who is the only player to win two World Championship titles in the year 2000. He was also selected as the ACBL Player of the Year 1999. The concept behind this defense mechanism is the fact that it is employed by partnership agreement against Weak No Trump openings by the opponents.

Moscito - This bidding system was developed and devised first by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess. If one takes the first four letters, then it builds an acronym for Major Oriented Strong Club. For its foundation, Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess used to a considerable extent the Symmetric Relay system and applied their version especially in auctions where the opening side has the balance of power. Originally, the Moscito System was a Strong-Pass system, but was altered in 1992 to the following structured bidding sequence.

Moscito Byte Bidding System - Moscito Byte, as a variation of the original Moscito bidding system, was researched and devised with several targets in mind, that of entering and exiting the auction as quickly as possible and find a contract, especially in a Major suit, that of determining whether game values are present, and if slam should be explored. and that of increasing the difficulty of communication between the opponents.

German Moscito - The variation with the name German Moscito was developed by Nikolas Bausback, Jurgen Dueball, Bjorn Janson, and Rene Steiner, and is based on a Moscito version devised by Mr. Martin Buchen of Australia.

Moscito 2002 - This is a summary of the Moscito Bidding System, written by Mr. René Steiner and Mr. Nikolas Bausback. This summary is in German. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Honeymoon Moscito - The variation of the Moscito Bidding System called Honeymoon Moscito was devised by Mr. Peter Buchen of Australia. This variation is based on the original Moscito System devised by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess.

Moscito-D - This variation of the Moscito System was developed by the German Moscito Team Mr. Nikolas Bausback, Mr. Jurgen Dueball, Mr. Bjorn Janson, and Mr. Rene Steiner. In Germany, the standard form for the most recognized bidding system is called Forum-D, derived from French bidding systems.

Newlands Moscito - This variation of the Moscito System is called the Newlands Moscito and was developed by Mr. D A. Newlands and Mr. M. Willcox, and is based on the original Moscito System devised by Mr. Paul Marston and Mr. Stephen Burgess.

Terrorist's Moscito - Also titled Major-Oriented Strong Club with Intrepid Two Openers was published by Mr. Bo-Yin Yang of the Department of Mathematics at the Tamkang University in Taiwan. Contributing authors are: Mr. Ruey-Lun Lin, Jessica Y. Lee, and Mr. David Morgan. This publication can be downloaded as a .pdf file.

Moscito Byte by GIB - This is another variation of the Moscito bidding system devised by and for GIB or Ginsberg's Intelligent Bridgeplayer, which is a computer bridge software program developed by Mr. Matthew Ginsberg, a professor of artificial intelligence at the University of Oregon and an expert bridge player.

Moscito System - This is a summary of the opening bids of the Moscito System as written and compiled by Mr. Richard Willey. The opening bids are described in detail and the continuing auction is presented with explanations. Suggestions on defense mechanisms are also offered with possible interpretations.

Moscito Notes by Mr. Richard Willey - A comprehensive compilation of opening bids and responses regarding the Moscito Bidding System. This information has been removed from the Internet and has only been archived on this site. The author is Mr. Richard Willey. This information is presented in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader.

SCRAPE or Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever
Mr. Mark Abraham
of Australia has compiled a collection of various bidding systems. This particular bidding system is a derivative, modification and/or adaptation of the Moscito System and is therefore included in this list. The system has also been archived and preserved on this Website for future reference. See: Glossary

Movements - A movement is a schedule of progression for bridge players, which indicates the seat to be occupied in succession of the play. This schedule also indicates the boards and the numbers of the boards to be played by each player during each round of play. It is the obligation of the director to announce the movement to be followed before play commences. We have included several of these movements and will be adding more.

Muiderberg - Muiderbergh - The Dutch Two Bids - Lucas Two Bids - The origin of the Muiderberg or Muiderbergh Two Bids, which is sometimes spelled differently, and which is sometimes referred to as The Dutch Twos and the Lucas Two Bids, is the village of Muiderbergh, The Netherlands, which lies near Amsterdam. The concept was devised by Mr. Onno Janssens and Mr. Willem Beogem, who both lived in this village, and was based on Weak Two openings. The origin of the Lucas Two Bids is unknown and the original definition was that it represented a 5-card suit either in Diamonds, Hearts, or Spades with a second 4-card side suit in the other Major if the opening Two Bid was in either of the Major suits. The high card point range was between 6 and 10 high card points. In general, the responses follow the same pattern as the Muiderbergh Two Bids.

Muiderberg Two - Muiderberger Two - Muiderbergh Two - An explanation of the Muiderberg convention in Dutch.

Muiderberg Two - Muiderberger Two - Muiderbergh Two - Translated in English and contributed by Mr. Bart Moonen in August 2003. A description of the conventional method of opening on the two level and the ensuing responses, plus defense against overcalls and provisions for slam attempt.

Muiderberg Two - Muiderberger Two - Muiderbergh Two - Translated in English and contributed by Christine Karman in December 2003. This translation provides a description of the conventional method of opening on the two level and the ensuing responses.

Defense Against Muiderberger Two - Muiderberg - Muiderbergh Defense Mechanism - An explanation of the Muiderberg - Muiderbergh Two Bids Defense Mechanism in the native language of Dutch.

Defense Against Muiderberger Two - Muiderberg - Muiderbergh Defense Mechanism - Translated in English and contributed by Christine Karman in December 2003. This is the English translation of the web page in Dutch for the Muiderberg Defense Mechanism listed above.

Multi Two Diamonds - Multi 2 Diamonds - The Multi 2 Diamonds opening was devised in the 1960s by Mr. Terence Reese and Mr. Jeremy Flint, assisted by fellow bridge partners Mr. Robert Sheehan, Mr. Jonathan Cansino and Mr. Irving Rose. The concept behind this opening is to make the interference by the opponents difficult and to obstruct their line of communication by an opening on the Two Level.

Defense Method to Multi 2 Diamonds Opening
This method of defense against a 2 Diamonds opening by the opponents, employing the Multi 2 Diamonds convention, was devised by Mr. Danny Kleinman, a bridge expert player, who together with Mr. Eddie Kantar devised the Kantar Kleinman Slam Force.

Multi 2 NT Response - Multi 2 No Trump Response
This conventional method was originated by Mr. Ronald Denny Klinger, better known as Mr. Ron Klinger of Australia. The concept is that a first response of 2 No Trump after the opening by partner indicates at least a 4-card support for the bid suit and at least 7 high card points. The range of the values of the responder are however unlimited, and for this reason the significance of this first response can have multiple meanings, which are clarified later in the auction.

Myxomatosis Two Bids - This system of Weak Two bids, or bids beginning on the two level, with optional and various features was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Sebesfi. The noun describes a disease which kills rabbits.

Nagy Game Tries - This method of discovering whether game is a possibility after a one level raise of a Major suit, especially Spades, is worth exploring, was most likely devised by Mr. Peter Nagy.

New Minor Forcing - Generally a low level bid of the remaining unbid Minor suit, which is one-round forcing and requires partner to continue to describe values and length of the holding. Also refered to as Unbid Minor-Suit Force.

Hardy Adjunct to New Minor Forcing - The origin of this concept is unknown. When the partnership has agreed to employ the Hardy Adjunct after a New Minor Forcing bid by the responder, then the opener can further clarify his holding and shape or pattern.

Simplified New Minor Forcing - Devised by Mr. Martin Gellman. The addition of Mr. Martin Gellman to the New Minor Forcing convention is presented due to the understanding of certain partnership agreements. The idea behind this simplified form is readily understood and should be made available to the bridge players, who use different interpretations of the auction to mean different things.

Wittes Adjunct to New Minor Forcing - The origin of this treatment is unknown. When employing New Minor Forcing as the partnership agreement, the partnership may wish to show the quality of the opener's holding in the responder's Major suit.

Nilsland Defense Against 1 NT Doubled or Nilslandske slinkningar - The English designation of Nilsland Defense or the Swedish designation of Nilslandske slinkningar is a defense mechanism against a double after a 1 No Trump opening, devised by Mr. Mats Nilsland of Sweden. This conventional method can be used after a 1 No Trump opening has been doubled or 1 No Trump overcall has been doubled. The only disadvantage to this convention is that the partnership may not be able to play 1 No Trump doubled.

Norman Four No Trump - Norman 4 No Trump - Norman 4 NT - A slam convention in which the Kings and Aces are shown with one bid. The Ace is counted as 1 point and the King is counted as 0.5 points.

No Trump Opening - When, and with how many high card points should you open 1 No Trump or 2 No Trump. See also: Weak No Trump Opening

How can the responder most accurately describe his hand after his partner has opened the auction with 1 No Trump. Which conventions allow him to provide the necessary information. The following list of conventions may help the individual bridge player.

Allen - A convention allowing responder to explore for a 4-4 Minor suit fit.

Dynamic 1 No Trump - Dynamic One No Trump - This method of opening No Trump is an integral feature of the Romex Bidding System, devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico and Mr. Phillip Alder. The concept is that the opener may show a relatively strong holding, which is unbalanced, and which can be made on any distribution except 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, or 5-3-3-2 holdings. The strength is restricted to exactly 18 to 21 points and must have at least five controls and which has only four to five losers.

Four Suit Transfer Bids - 4 Suit Transfer Bids - This is the extended version of the Jacoby Transfer after an opening of 1 No Trump by the responder to transfer to all four suits.

Jacoby Transfers - Jacoby Transfer - A convention for the responder to show length in the Major suits.

Jacoby Transfers For The Minor Suits - This convention, originally devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, is used by the responder whose partner has opened the bidding with 1 No Trump, and is an extension of the Jacoby Transfer convention. The concept of this convention was created for the responder, whose holding includes a long Minor suit and, generally, very little values.

Miles Responses to Two No Trump Openings - A method of responding to opening bids of 2 No Trump devised by Mr. Marshall Miles to assist in the safe exploration for slams, games, or partscores in any suit.

Smolen - A convention allowing the weaker hand to force the No Trump bidder to become the declarer.

Parkes Two Spades - Parkes 2 Spades - The origin of this conventional opening is unknown. The concept is frequently a Weak Two bid opening with multiple meanings and clarified by the opener with the second bid. The high card point values may be less than an opening count or exceedingly strong and the Weak Two bid is dependent on distribution.

Pinpoint Astro - This variation of the Astro convention uses the bid of a minor-suit overcall after a strong 1 No Trump opening (15-18 high card points) to show a two-suited hand. This variation is sometimes mistaken for the Brozel convention due to the similarities between the two conventions.

Polish Club
Bidding System

Polish Club Bidding System - Many of the following articles are present on the Internet and have only been archived on this site. The majority of this information has been presented for and posted to the Internet by Mr. Mike Mardesich. The information provided in these articles has also been through the contribution of several bridge experts, such as Mr. John Blubaugh, who for many years was a member of the expert panel of the Problem Solvers for the online Brydz Magazine of Poland, a magazine which is comparable to The Bridge World.

Polish Club is a term describing a set of conventions played mainly in the country of Poland. They were developed, devised and published by a group of experts of the Polish Brydz magazine in the 1960s. Although not a complete, universal, distinct or unified bidding system, but rather a family or set of bidding systems, which are used by individual partnerships, the Polish Club has experienced several advantages over other bidding systems. Other names for distinct Polish Club Systems, possibly even geographical, variations include the following. Although the different variations are generally referred to as Polish Club, this may not be the case with purists.

The main feature of the Polish Club bidding system is the artificial 1 Club opening. Since the 1 Club opening includes strong hands, the remaining one level openings are limited in strength.

The Cracow System, which was very popular in the southern city of Cracow, Poland, during the 1980s. Among its adherents were Mr. Kwiecien, Mr. Pszczola, Mr. Martens. No information available about this variation at this time.

Fiskforsk No Trump Structure - This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Source: http://home1.gte.net/yweare/pc-xnt.htm.

Martens-Szymanowski System, which is a variation of the Polish Club System used by the well-known bridge experts and parnership of Mr. Krzysztof Martens and Mr. Marek Szymanowski. of Poland. No information available about this variation at this time.

Nasz System - This is a variation of the Polish Club System and which is played in a certain geographical location within the country. The name translates to Our System and is commonly referred to as Strefa, which translates as Zone. The link is a .pdf file format, which is in Polish Language. The .pdf file may, depending on your browser, be downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or may be opened by your browser. Anyone wishing to translate this article, please send it to the Bridge Guys. Anyone wishing to translate this article, please send it to the Bridge Guys.

Otwarcie Polish Club - This is a .pdf file format of the conventional bidding system used in Poland and which is written for the Bridge Forum, especially for the Internet Wspólne Forum. This file will be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened automatically with Adobe Acrobat, or, depending on your browser, opened by your browser. This file in only in the Polish language. It would be greatly appreciated if anyone wishing to translate these pages would send the translation to the Bridge Guys.

Polish Club Summary and 1 Club Auctions - This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Source: http://home1.gte.net/yweare/pc-1c.htm.

Polish Club 2 Clubs Auctions - This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Source: http://home1.gte.net/yweare/pc-2c.htm.

Polish Club 1 Diamond, 1 Heart, and 1 Spade Auctions - This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Source: http://home1.gte.net/yweare/pc-1dhs.htm.

Polish Scissors - This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader. This conventional bidding system is based on an opening bid, which originally promised a 5-5 distribution in any two of the four suits. This version is called The 2 Spades Opening in the HIGH System of the Polish Scissors bidding theory. This 2 Spades opening shows (at least) 5-5 in any two suits. The strength is either 5-10 high card points or a very strong hand (10 tricks) with at least 5-5 in the Minors. In most tournaments in Norway this convention is not allowed, as any preemptive opening bid must show at least one specified suit, so in the LOW system the 5-5 hands are opened 2 Hearts / 2 Spades / 2 NT (showing Majors / +another / Diamonds +Major respectively).

Polish 2 Diamond Convention or Wilkosz Convention or Wilkosza Convention - This is a .pdf file format and is in the Polish language. Any visitor wishing to translate this version would greatly benefit the bridge community. This information has been compiled by Mr. Marek Wójcicki Przemysl. Since the English-based computer keyboards do not recognize the Polish characters, this .pdf file has been printed off the Internet in its original form and therefore contains the URL in the content in Poland, where this information is located. This is a variation of the Wilkosza 2 Diamonds conventional method.A conventional bidding system devised by the expert bridge player Mr. Andrzej Wilkosz during the 1960s. The designation of the original version is also called The Polish 2 Diamond. There are several variations of this conventional method since the original version was deemed to be a "Brown Sticker", meaning that most bridge sponsoring organizations banned and/or limited the use of such methods.

Polish Club System Notes - Compiled by Mr. Gunther Schutzenmeier. This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Source: http://members.rogers.com/gmeier/.

Summary of System Sequences - This is written in a .pdf file format, and, depending on your browser, will either be automatically opened by your browser or automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Source: http://home1.gte.net/yweare/pc-odd.htm.

Wspolny Jezyk, which translates to Common Language. No information available about this variation at this time.

Preempts

Preempts - These are bids by any player, which increase the level of bidding and are used as a form of obstruction. They can be disciplined or undisciplined preempts and can change according to the state of the vulnerability of the partnership.

Preemptive Bids - What are the requirements for a Preempt at the Three Level and higher. Is there a universal standard for Preemptive bids. We present the basics and points to consider. What information are you giving your partner when you make a Preemptive bid.

Namyats Preempt Transfer - A Preemptive Opening of 4 Clubs or 4 Diamonds indicating either of the two Major suits devised by Mr. Samuel Stayman.

Romex Namyats - This concept is an integral part of the Romex Bidding System, devised and developed over the years by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico in cooperation and collaboration with Mr. Phillip Alder. The principle behind the concept is based on the original Namyats convention, devised by Mr. Samuel Stayman. The basic structure remains the same, but the requirements are stricter and more accurately defined.

Preemptive Opening Transfer - Preemptive Transfer Opening Bids - The Preemptive Opening Transfer, or Preemptive Transfer Opening Bids convention, in comparison to other Preemptive Transfer conventions, requires that an opening preemptive bid be made in the suit ranking below the long suit of the opener. The Preemptive Opening Transfer bid is generally made on the three level.

Roth Four Clubs Response To Preemptive Bids on the Three Level - This conventional method was originated by Mr. Alvin Leon Roth, a bridge author and theoretician, who partnered often with Mr. Jeff Rubens and Mr. Tobias Stone. The following concept was conceived by him to force the continuation of the auction following a preemptive bid by the partner on the three level in any suit. The main feature of this concept entails the desire of the responder to explore the possibilities of not only a game contract, but also the possibility of a slam contract.

Two-Under Transfer Preempt - An unusual Preempt convention devised by Mr. Marty Bergen.

Defence Against Preemptive Openings - A few guidelines for the defenders.

Library
Main Section

Relay Bids - These are minimum bids unrelated to the actual holding of the bidder, and are intended only to keep the auction open, in order that the partner can continue to describe his hand. We all use them in one form or another.

Relay Precision - Written by Mr. Hugh Grosvenor and Mr. Ian Robinson. This is an adaption of methods developed in New Zealand over the last few years. It is a strong club system, similar in many ways to Precision Club but using relay continuations over all of the openings.

Relay Precision - This version of the Symmetric Relay System is by Professor Roy Kerr and has been modified by Mr. Richard Hills in November 2000. This version has only been archived on this site in .pdf file format.

Reverse Bids - A method to show No Trump strength without No Trump distribution.

Ingberman Convention - This is not a variation of the Reverse bid, but rather a concept devised by Mr. Monroe Ingberman to be used by the responder of a Reverse bidder to show minimum values through a Relay bid of 2 No Trump.

Ripstra Convention - The Ripstra convention was devised by Mr. J.G. Ripstra, and shows actually a 3-suited hand. It is an overcall after a 1 No Trump Opening, and can be used either in Second or in the Fouth Seat after two passes. The actual strength of the hand varies slightly and is very much dependent on the vulnerability.

Roman Blackwood - This convention is a variation on the concept of Mr. Easley Blackwood and shows matching Aces and Aces of the same color and/or rank.

Roman Key Card Blackwood - This variation of the Blackwood convention includes the King of Trump as a fifth Ace, and the responder shows Key Cards.

1430 Convention - A variation of Roman Key Card Blackwood which reverses the meaning of two responses.

6-Ace Roman Key Card Blackwood - This conventional method, otherwise known by its abbreviated designation 6A-RKCB, is considered to be a natural extension of the concept known as Roman Key Card Blackwood, whereby the Key Card Bidder asks for five known Key Cards. However, the 6A-RKCB conventional method asks for eight known Key Cards, the four Aces, the two Kings, and the two Queens. The one difference is that the Roman Key Card Blackwood conventional method applies to only one known suit fit, whereas the 6A-RKCB conventional method applies to two known suit fits.

Romex Bidding System - This bidding system was devised and developed over the years by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico in cooperation and collaboration with Mr. Phillip Alder. Following are some of the features specifically designed for this bidding system, and which are used by bridge players independently of the system.

Dynamic No Trump - This method of opening No Trump is an integral feature of the Romex Bidding System, devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico and Mr. Phillip Alder. The concept is that the opener may show a relatively strong holding, which is unbalanced, and which can be made on any distribution except 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, or 5-3-3-2 holdings. The strength is restricted to exactly 18 to 21 points and must have at least five controls and which has only four to five losers.

Romex Gerber - After the Gerber Convention was devised, many bridge players began to apply it in their bidding auctions. They discovered that the convention had several drawbacks and decided to alter the convention. Other partnerships devised a modification of the Roman Gerber variation, and this modification was used in the Romex Bidding System.

Romex Jump Shifts - A short description of the requirements and restrictions included in the Romex Bidding System to allow for the bids by either partner to be forcing.

Romex Namyats - This concept is an integral part of the Romex Bidding System, devised and developed over the years by Mr. George Rosenkranz of Mexico in cooperation and collaboration with Mr. Phillip Alder. The principle behind the concept is based on the original Namyats convention, devised by Mr. Samuel Stayman. The basic structure remains the same, but the requirements are stricter and more accurately defined.

Romex Stayman Over 2 NT and 1 NT - Mr. Marshall Miles, Mr. George Rosenkranz, the developer of the Romex Bidding System, and others developed this alternative to Puppet Stayman.

Romex Trump Asking Bids - The Romex Bidding System, devised by Mr. George Rosenkranz and Mr. Phillip Alder employs the 2 Clubs opening as an artificial bid, which is forcing to game. The Trump Asking Bids are conducted in Step Responses, and the trump suit may change during the bidding sequence.

Rubinsohl - A transfer method by the responder immediately after an overcall. This method uses the combination of transfers and Lebensohl in competitive auctions, aimed at allowing a player to show his distribution with both weak and strong hands. This method was introduced by Mr. Bruce Neill of Australia in an article in The Bridge World in 1983. The concept was based on the articles published in the same magazine by Mr. Jeff Rubens, who used the term Rubensohl.

Rules - A compilation of the mathematical Rules, which help in defense and offense through counting of the leads, whether or not to open in Fourth Seat, etc. In the list below, you can click on the specific Rule which might interest you.

Rule of Two and Three - Rule of 2 and 3

Rule of Two, Three and Four - Rule of 2, 3 and 4

Rule of Seven - Rule of 7

Rule of Eight - Rule of 8

Rule of Nine - Rule of 9

Rule of Eleven - Rule of 11

Rule of Twelve - Rule of 12

Rule of Fourteen - Rule of 14

Rule of Fifteen - Rule of 15

Rule of Eighteen - Rule of 18

Rule of 9s and 10s - Rule of Nines and Tens

Rule of Nineteen - Rule of 19

Rule of Twenty - Rule of 20

Rule of Twenty Two - Rule of 22

Rule of Twenty Six - Rule of 26

Rumble versus Big One Club - This conventional defense mechanism was devised by Mr. Glen Ashton. Rumble is used against strong artificial forcing strong One Club openings. Rumble is an aggressive method, which the bridge player can employ effectively play against strong One Club openings. The link is to the website of Mr. Glen Ashton. This information has only been archived and preserved in .pdf file format on this site.

Sandwich No Trump - This term refers to the bid of 1 No Trump, generally on the one level, of a player made between two bidding opponents after two suits have been mentioned. Generally the overcall can be made in Third Seat, but more often in Fourth Seat after partner has passed. This bid describes a distribution of 5-5 in the other two unbid suits.

Score - A complete list of how to score points for Partscore, Game, Overtricks, Undertricks, Slams, Doubles and Redoubles.

Score Card - A complete list of all possible contracts and the results either doubled, redoubled, vulnerable and not vulnerable.

Scoring Software Programs - Many bridge players, who are also very much acquainted with computer programming, have developed computer software programs to assist in the scoring of duplicate bridge events. Below is a list of Internet Websites, which offer such programs. The individual bridge player must determine the reliability of such software applications. Some of these software programs are freeware and others must be purchased.

ACBL Score - Developed by ACBL. The visitor will have to search the Website for the software application.

Bridge Score - Developed by Mr. Stephen Bligh. Developed by a Bridge Player for Bridge Players.

Bridge Scoring Program - Developed by Mr. Mike Rothwell. A suite of programs which will score pairs events, teams, Swiss teams and individual events.

Bridge Scoring Program - Developed by Ruth Edmondson. A program which scores Duplicate pairs and almost any movement.

Bridge Scoring Program - Developed by Mr. Tony Haworth. The program is a pairs scorer, match point pairs, butler scoring, cross-imp scoring, aggregate scoring), catering for up to 28 tables and 25 rounds within any one section. Multi-section (5), and multi-session (4), scoring is accommodated. Any movement can be handled, and can include arrow-switches, rovers, sit-outs, pre-duplicated rounds, etc.

BridScore - Developed by Mr. Bob Anderson. Duplicate Bridge Scoring System for Match Pointed Pairs.

CASS - The EBU Club Scoring System.

The ECatsBridge Program & Manual

Fin-S Bridge Scoring System - Developed by Mr. Chris Stableford. A comprehensive suite of scoring and utility programs for Bridge Club Scorers, Tournament Directors and Event Organisers.

Duplicate Pairs Scorer - Developed by Mr. Jeff Smith.

Pairs Scoring Program - Developed by Mr. Keith Sheppard.

SCBridge Program - Developed by Mr. Stephen Brown. Scores Duplicates of up to 30 tables in a section, or more in multi-section mode). Scores Mitchells, shares and relays, arrow-switches, full and part Howells.

SCRAPE or Strong Club Relay Avoiding Passing Ever - Mr. Mark Abraham of Australia has compiled a collection of various bidding systems. This particular bidding system is a derivative, modification and/or adaptation of the Moscito System. The system has also been archived and preserved on this Website for future reference. See: Glossary

Sharples Convention - The Sharples convention is a method of responding to a No Trump opening when the responder holds only one 4-card Major and one or both 4-card Minor suits. This concept was devised by Mr. James Sharples and Mr. Robert Sharples. The Sharples method is an extension of the Stayman convention and allows the partnership to explore first of all for a fit in a Major suit, and, if no fit is found, then to attempt to find a fit in a Minor suit.

Sharples Against No Trump Opening - Although the Sharples convention, devised by Mr. James and Robert Sharples, is originally a method of responding to a No Trump opening by the partner, Mr. James Sharples and Mr. Robert Sharples, both of Caterham, England, also developed a method of defending against a No Trump opening by the opponents.

Soloway Jump Shifts - A specific bidding sequence developed by and named after Mr. Paul Soloway.

Splinter - A convention allowing certain distributional hands to bid slam without necessarily having the high card points, but rather indicating the position of certain Key Cards.

Squeezes

Squeezes and Squeeze Plays - These are different plays which forces an opponent, sometimes both opponents, to discard a winner or a potential winner.

Squeeze Plays constitute a main and major portion of the game of bridge and deserves its own category. The foundation, logic and reason for establishing a squeeze play is based on the auction, based on the count of the cards, based on inference of the location of known cards and guards, as they are called, and on many other different aspects. The student of bridge is well advised to study the different squeeze plays and become acquainted with them.

Library
Main Section

Stayman Convention - A convention allowing the responder to a No Trump opening to ask for a 4-card Major. Included is the technical difference between Forcing and Non-Forcing Stayman.

Back Door Stayman
This concept allows the partnership not only to find a 4-4 fit in a Major suit, but also a possible 4-3 fit in a Major suit.

Checkback Stayman by the Responder - This .pdf file has been written and contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego. It represents a thorough explanation of this conventional method and employs illustrative examples demonstrating auctions and situations, in which the conventional method is used. We are very grateful to Mr. Marvin French for his contribution. The .pdf file will be automatically opened by your browser and not automatically downloaded to your computer.

Crawling Stayman - The designation of this conventional method is sometimes also referred to as Creeping Stayman. The concept behind this conventional method is the employment of two other conventional methods in the partnership agreement of Non-Forcing Stayman and the Jacoby Transfer method. It is mainly employed when the responder has a weak holding and decides that the partnership has a better chance in a suit contract rather than in a No Trump contract.

Double Barreled Stayman - A variation of Stayman using a combination of Non-Forcing and Game-Forcing Stayman.

Efos Extended Stayman - Efos is an acronym for Economical Forcing System, which is used in international championships. This conventional method allows a partnership to find 4-4 and 5-3 Major fits, as well as Minor suit fits. Efos Extended Stayman may be used to search for Major and Minor suit fits after a strong No Trump opening.

Extended Stayman - The concept is based on the idea of showing the strength of the opener on the second round of the auction. Once the asking bid of 2 Clubs, or Stayman, has been bid by the responder, then the opener will communicate the possession or non-possession of a 4-card Major suit plus minimum or maximum values of the No Trump opening.

EFOS/Extended Stayman - A method of Stayman used in the Efos bidding system to determine fits in either the Major and/or Minor suits after a strong No Trump opening.

Five Card Stayman - This designation must not be confused with the identical and older designation of / for Puppet Stayman or with the concept of Puppet Stayman. The variation has been devised to be employed when the partnership does not include any kind of transfers in the partnership agreement. This conventional method is also not employed after an immediate overcall by an opponent, regardless of the level. The concept is used to find a 5-card Major suit after one partner has opened the auction with 1 No Trump.

Garbage Stayman - A variation of the Stayman convention, which allows the responder to initiate the Stayman convention with 0-7 points and a unique distributional shape. Also known as Drop Dead Stayman.

Minor Suit Stayman - This convention, a variation of the Jacoby Transfer originally devised by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, is used by the responder whose partner has opened the bidding with 1 No Trump. The Minor Suit Stayman convention was devised for specifically three types of holdings held by the responder, and which will be determined during the ensuing auction.

Murray Two Diamonds - Murray 2 Diamonds - The Murray Two Diamonds convention was devised by Mr. Eric R. Murray and is similar to the Two Way Stayman concept. After one partner opens the auction with 1 No Trump, the partner, with a holding such as the following, must bid 2 Diamonds.

Non-Forcing Stayman - The idea of a non-forcing Stayman sequence is rather a misnomer, since the 1 No Trump bidder is forced to respond. The non-forcing sequence occurs when the Stayman inquirer rebids a different suit after the 1 No Trump bidder has responded in another suit.

Puppet Stayman - A method to discover whether the No Trump bidder has opened with a 5-card Major suit.

Range Stayman - The origin of this conventional method is unknown, but the concept has become popular in certain bidding circumstances. It is applied in the Fourth Seat after two passes, which means that the Range Stayman becomes a balancing feature.

Sharples - The Sharples convention is a method of responding to a No Trump opening when the responder holds only one 4-card Major and one or both 4-card Minor suits. This concept was devised by Mr. James Sharples and Mr. Robert Sharples. The Sharples method is an extension of the Stayman convention and allows the partnership to explore first of all for a fit in a Major suit, and, if no fit is found, then to attempt to find a fit in a Minor suit.

Slam-Try Stayman - A variation of the Stayman convention which allows the responder to bid 2 Diamonds to indicate interest in slam.

Spring Stayman - Generally played in France this concept allows the partnership to determine more accurately the distributional holding of the No Trump bidder, even the distribution of the Minor suits since the concept can also allow the discovery of a 4-4 or 5-4 Minor suit fit.

Stayman and The Minor Suits - This variation of the Stayman convention deals with long Minor suits and how to bid them.

Stayman Showing Stoppers - The idle bid of 2 Diamonds is used as a method of discovering whether the partnership has all of the suits stopped for a final contract in No Trump.

Stayman After a 2 No Trump Opening - This partnership understanding allows the partnership to determine whether only a partscore is possible and also whether only game or slam is possible by the use of the first responses in the Minor suits.

Strength Showing Stayman - This variation of the Stayman convention is generally used when the partnership has agreed to open a strong No Trump with a point range between 16-18 points and balanced distribution. The No Trump bidder can show either minimum or maximum strength first before bidding a possible 4-card Major suit.

Two Way Stayman - A version devised by Mr. Alan Fraser Truscott.

Stoplight Convention - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The intent of the concept is that a light opening by one partner is recognized, after a forcing response, by partner to possibly stop short of game. This is accomplished by employing an artificial rebid which informs the responder that opener holds a very light opening, hence the designation: "Stop - Light". This concept is similar to the Wolff Sign Off method. This article has been contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California, and which, as a .pdf file, will be automatically opened by your browser. An article about the conventional method of Stoplight was published in Popular Bridge magazine, February 1978. The article won second place in the International Bridge Press Association's Awards for Best Article or Series on a System or Convention (C. C. Wei "Precision" Award). It was also published in the Contract Bridge Forum, August/September 1982. It is included in the book Bridge Conventions Complete, by Amalya Kearse.

Suction Convention - The Suction convention is a little known defense mechanism if the opponents open the auction with 1 No Trump. The overcall of any suit shows the next-higher suit, or the other two suits. This is known as a Transfer since the overcaller is actually transferring his partner to the desired suit.

Swiss - The Swiss convention requires a response of Four in A Minor Suit to an opening of one in a Major Suit and shows a Standard Forcing Raise to the Three-Level.

Variations of this convention are listed below.

Trump Swiss - A variation of the Swiss convention with a more informative bidding process.

Fruit Machine Swiss - A variation of the Swiss convention showing Singletons, Aces, and Trump King.

Singleton Swiss - A variation of the Swiss convention showing two Aces and maybe a singleton.

Super Swiss - A variation using a four step bidding process showing Voids, Singletons, and Aces.

Conglomerate Major Raises - An extension of the Swiss convention.

Limit Raise - Limit Raises - Limit Raises apply the Swiss convention in reaching the correct contract.

Unbalanced Swiss Raises - A feature of the Aces Scientific System.

Value Swiss Raises - A feature of the Aces Scientific System.

Texas Convention - The Texas convention is simply a Transfer Bid. It was developed by Mr. David Carter of the United States, and also independently by Mr. Olle Willner of Sweden.

Texas Transfer Convention - A Four Level bid by the responder to a No Trump opening to transfer the intended suit back to the opener. This convention is also an optional feature of the Acol Bidding System.

The Unusual No Trump - How to show your Partner a two-suited hand with an overcall of one bid, and to show him which suits they are. A powerful tool of bridge utilized by many bridge players.

Super Unusual Two No Trump - Super Unusual 2NT
This variation appears in the book authored by Mr. Larry Cohen in his publication entitled: To Bid or Not to Bid - The Law of Total Tricks beginning with page 118-119. The content of this web page is an excerpt from this book and posted to the Internet with the permission of the author.

Thomas Convention - The origin of this convention is unknown and is properly designated as the Thomas Four Diamonds - Thomas 4 Diamonds convention. It can be used in several bidding systems, such as the Universal Club bidding system, but can also be employed as a stand-alone method of asking for Aces. The convention is used only used after an opening of a Major suit, not after a Minor suit opening.

Tonto Convention - This conventional method was devised and developed by Mr. Robert Stone. The designation is an acronym for Transfers Over 3 No Trump Overcalls. It is a basically a means employed by the partnership to continue to explore for additional information after one partner has overcalled an opening preempt bid on the three level by the opponents with 3 No Trump.

Touching Escape Bids - This convention method provides a so-called escape system in particular auctions whereby one player has opened the bidding with a suit and there has been an overcall of a natural 1 No Trump, which is then doubled for penalty by the next player in rotation.

Transfer Advances: Part 1 and Part 2
This is a technique / conventional method published by Mr. Jeff Rubens in the Bridge World in the 1970s, and compiled by Mr. Marc Smith for the Internet. The basic concept of the Transfer Advance is that the player rotate the meaning of all bids between and including the simple cue-bid to the bid below the raise. This information has only been preserved and archived on this site in .pdf file format.

Transfer Bids - This is the designation for a bid or call that shows, by agreement, length in the next higher-ranking suit. This bid is employed to transfer the contract into the stronger holding and also to provide a more flexible bidding. Such bids, or calls, were first employed by Mr. David Carter, who devised them for the conventional method designated Texas Transfers. These bids were also developed by Mr. Oswald Jacoby, who employed them for his Jacoby Transfer bids. Such transfer bids were also independently devised and developed by Mr. Olle Willner of Stockholm, Sweden, who published their employment and use in a series of articles in the magazine Bridge Tidningen in 1953 and 1954. Transfer bids can also be employed by the partnership to distinguish between weak and strong opening preempt bids and to allow the responder to judge whether a slam possibility exists. Since their development, transfer bids have been used for many bidding situations and have led to other conventional methods known by different designations but all of which have the transfer concept generally by the responder in common.

Two Way Checkback - Two Way Checkback, introduced by Mr. Kit Woolsey in an article in Bridge Today, uses the rebids of two of either minor by the responder after opener's 1 No Trump rebid as artificial and forcing. In the Woolsey-style, 2 puppets to 2 to play 2 or 3 or to invite game in various strains. 2 over 1 No Trump is artificial and game forcing. By Mr. Jeff Goldsmith.

Two Way Drury
This variation employs two bids to discover whether or not the holding of the opener is weak, sub-minimal, or a full opening.

Unbalanced Heart Convention - Contributed by Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California. The concept assists the partnership is describing an unbalanced holding held by the responder of game-invitational strength with five hearts and fewer than four spades. The Unbalanced Heart Convention was published in The Bridge World magazine, February 1978, and in the Contract Bridge Forum, August 1977. It is included in the book Bridge Conventions Complete, by Amalya Kearse. This is a .pdf file, which will automatically be opened by your browser.

Under Jump Shift - The Under Jump Shift is used to show:

(a) four card support for the Major suit bid by the opener

(b) 9+ to 12- high card points (Limit Raise values)

(c) a singleton or void in a side suit

The responder does this by making a jump shift in the suit immediately below the Major suit named by the opener. This is a .pdf file format and will, depending on your browser, be automatically downloaded to your computer and opened with Adobe Acrobat or automatically opened by your browser.

Warren Convention - This is a 4 No Trump convention, which is sometimes referred to as the San Francisco Convention. It was used by many bridge players when the game of bridge was evolving and it is, to some degree, very similar to the concept of the Culbertson Four-Five No Trump convention. The origin of the designation of the convention is unknown.

Weak Two Bid - Weak 2 Bid - A Convention or a Treatment? First practiced by Mr. Schenken and Mr. Van Vleck, and then adopted by many bridge players around the world because of its obstructive element. These bids have become universal, but not every player knows what to do afterwards.

Variations on this concept follow below.

Bailey Weak Two Bids - This treatment was originated by Mr. Evan Bailey of San Diego California and Mr. Edward Barlow of Sacramento, California. The concept is that one partner opens a Weak Two bid in any suit except Clubs with specific distributional attributes.

Benjamin Convention - Mr. Albert Benjamin from Scotland liked the Weak Two Bid so much, that he decided to alter it somewhat. He grew up using the Acol System, and altered the bidding auction.

McCabe Adjunct - This is a method whereby the Weak Two bidder and his partner play in a new suit on the three level.

Matthew Two Spades - Matthew 2 Spades - The origin of this conventional opening is unknown. The concept is a Weak Two bid opening with multiple meanings and clarified by the opener with the second bid. The high card point values are less than an opening count and the Weak Two bid is dependent on distribution.

Major Suit Weak Two Bids - This variation has been provided by Mr. Dirk Waerenborgh of Belgium. This conventional method is a variation of the general guidelines for opening Weak Two Bids combined with the Muiderberg convention and includes a Preemptive Opening on the three level. The exception is that the Weak Two Bids are confined to only the two Major suits. This is a .pdf file format and will automatically be opened by your browser.

Ogust System - A System of rebidding after a 2 No Trump response to partner's Weak Two opening, devised by Mr. Harold A. Ogust, with the intention of describing the holding more completely in terms of weakness and strength.

Modified Ogust - A variant of the Ogust System developed by Mr. Jeff Goldsmith.

Parkes Two Spades - Parkes 2 Spades - The origin of this conventional opening is unknown. The concept is frequently a Weak Two bid opening with multiple meanings and clarified by the opener with the second bid. The high card point values may be less than an opening count or exceedingly strong and the Weak Two bid is dependent on distribution.

Tiroler Berg Weak Two Bids - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. The basis of the concept is the Weak Two bid in either Major suit with the original opening showing a specified suit. The opening can have several meanings, which are then clarified by the rebids.

Weak Jump Shift Response - During the evolution of the Strong Jump Shift response, signifying 15/16 high card points and a 6-card suit, it became evident that even a normal response had the same effect, since any response by the responder continues to be forcing for one round. Therefore, another interpretation of the Jump Shift response became the norm. Instead of being strong, the Jump Shift became weak.

Weak No Trump Opening - The use of a No Trump range between 10-12 high card points, used as a preemptive strike against the opponents. Employed mainly by favorable vulnerability and generally in the First, Second, and sometimes Third Seat.

Mohan Defense Against Weak No Trump Opening - Devised by and named after Mr. John Mohan, who is the only player to win two World Championship titles in the year 2000. He was also selected as the ACBL Player of the Year 1999. The concept behind this defense mechanism is the fact that it is employed by partnership agreement against Weak No Trump openings by the opponents.

Weak Opening Systems - Weak Opening Systems, or WOS, has become a bidding system in its own right. The first such system was primarily accomplished by Mr. Jukasz Slawinski of Poland. It was based originally upon the concept behind a Strong Two Club bidding system. This concept was revised, expanded, and amended.

Weissberger - Used in the Acol bidding system, this conventional variation of the Stayman convention assists the partnership to establish whether the No Trump bidder holds a 3-card Major suit.

Western Cuebid - Although this is not a convention, it is a useful concept when the partnership discovers that the better contract could be a No Trump contract rather than a suit contract. The only requirement is that an opponent must make a suit overcall in order that one partner can cuebid that particular suit in order to discover whether the other partner has a stopper in that suit. Therefore, the Western Cuebid asks for a stopper, but does not show a stopper.

California Cuebid - This is another designation for the Western Cuebid.

Eastern Cuebid - Although this is not a convention, it is a useful concept when the partnership discovers that the better contract could be a No Trump contract rather than a suit contract. The only requirement is that an opponent must make a suit overcall in order that one partner can cuebid that particular suit in order to show the other partner that he/she has a stopper in that suit. Therefore, the Eastern Cuebid shows a stopper, but does not ask for a stopper.

Whirlwind Convention - The origin of this conventional method is unknown. This conventional method is employed by the defense as a defense mechanism after one opponent has opened the auction with an opening of a strong 1 Club.

Woodson Two-Way No Trump - This convention, named after Mr. William Woodson, permits an opening bid of 1 No Trump with any balanced hand and can contain 10-12 high card points or 16-18 high card points. Mr. William Woodson reasoned that the opponents would have a more difficult time entering the auction if confronted by a 1 No Trump. If you select to use the Woodson Convention, include it in your Partnership Agreement, and ascertain whether you may play it at certain tournaments.

Wraight Convention - Devised by Mr. Philip Wraight. Playing Acol, you may have a problem as responder with a balanced 10 count, if you are unable to bid a four card suit at the one level, since 1 No Trump shows 6-9 points except over 1 , and the 2 No Trump rebid shows 11-12 points.

Yellow Rose of Texas Convention - This conventional method is one of many invented by Mr. Danny Kleinman and this presentation is a contribution of Mr. Danny Kleinman, and which are published in his book called A Cornucopia of Conventions. This particular conventional method is employed after the partner has opened the auction with 1 No Trump or 2 No Trump, and the partnership agreement is to use also Texas Transfers.

Zia Cuebids - Zia Cue Bids - The Zia Cuebid consists of bidding the suit, which the defender should not lead.

If you wish to include any convention listed here, or any other convention, of the game of bridge in your partnership agreement, then please make certain that the concept is understood by both partners. Be aware whether or not the features or the convention are alertable or not and whether an announcement should or must be made. Check with the governing body and/or the bridge district and/or the bridge unit prior to the game to establish the guidelines applied. Please include the particular feature on your convention card in order that your opponents are also aware of this feature during the bidding process, since this information must be made available to them according to the Laws of Duplicate Contract Bridge. We do not always include the procedure regarding Alerts and/or Announcements, since these regulations are changed and revised during time by the governing body. It is our intention only to present the information as concisely and as accurately as possible.
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